Que1.5. What are the colorful advantages of transducers?
Answer 1. Electrical modification and attenuation can be done fluently and that to with a static transducer device. 2. No moving mechanical corridor are involved in the electrical systems. thus there’s no question of mechanical wear and tear and gash and no possibility of mechanical failure. 3. The electric or electronic system can be controlled with a veritably small electric power. 4. Electrical signal attained from electrical transducer can be fluently reused( substantially amplified) and brought to a position suitable for affair device which may be an index or archivist. 5. With the arrival of IC technology, the electronic systems have come extremely small in size, taking small space for their operation.
Que1.6. Give the colorful disadvantages of transducers.
Answer 1. While designing the circuit the goods of geriatric and drifts of parameters of active factors must be considered. This makes the design complicated. 2. The electrical transducer is occasionally less dependable than mechanical type because of the ageing and drift of the active factors. 3. Using negative feedback fashion, the delicacy of dimension and the stability of the system are bettered, but all at the expenditure of increased circuit complexity, further space, and obviously, further cost.
Que1.7. What are the factors to be considered while opting transducer?
Answer 1. It should have high input impedance and low affair impedance, to avoid lading effect. 2. It should have good resolution over is entire favored range. 3. It must be largely sensitive to asked signal and asleep to unwanted signal. 4. It should be rather small in size. 5. It should be suitable to work in sharp terrain. 6. It should be suitable to repel pressure, shocks, climateetc. 7. It must have high degree of delicacy and repetition. 8. named transducer must be free from crimes.
Que1.8. What are the operations of transducers in colorful fields?
Answer 1. Electromagnetic Antennas ii. Hall- effect detectors iii. Disk read and write heads iv. glamorous charges. 2. Electromechanical Accelerometers ii. Pressure detectors iii. Galvanometers iv. LVDT cargo cells vi. Potentiometers. 3. Electrochemical Hydrogen detectors ii. Oxygen detectors iii. pH measures. 4. Electroacoustic Speakers( Loudspeakers, earphones) ii. Microphones iii. Ultrasonic transceivers iv. Piezoelectric chargers Sonar vi. Tactile transducers. 5. Photoelectric LED ii. Incandescent and fluorescent lights iii. Photovoltaic cells iv. Ray diodes Photoresistors( LDR) vi. Phototransistors. 6. Thermoelectric Thermistors ii. Thermocouples iii. RTD( Resistance temperature sensors). 7. Radioacoustic Radio transmitters and receivers ii. G- M tube( Geiger- Muller tube).
Que1.9. What’s potentiometer? bandy about its working.
Answer 1. A potentiometer or variable electrical resistance transducer is composed of a sliding contact and a winding. The winding is made of numerous turns of line, wrapped around anon-conducting substrate. 2. Affair signals from such a device can be realized by assessing a known voltage across the total resistance of the winding and by measuring the affair voltage, which is commensurable to the bit of the distance the contact point has moved along the winding. 3. Potentiometers can also be configured in a rotary form, with multitudinous total revolutions of the contact possible in a spiral arrangement. 4. The affair from the sliding contact as it moves along the winding is actually separate; the resolution is limited by the number of turns per unit distance. 5. The lading crimes associated with voltage- dividing circuits should be considered in choosing a measuring device for the affair voltage. 6. During the seeing operation, a voltage Vs is applied across the resistive element. A voltage separator circuit is formed when slider comes into contact with the line. 7. The affair voltage( VA) is measured as shown inFig.1.9.1. The affair voltage is commensurable to the relegation of the slider over the line. 8. also the affair parameter relegation is calibrated against the affair voltageVA.
Que1.13. Give the construction and working of LVDT for relegation dimension.
Answer Main features of construction 1. The motor consists of a primary winding P and two secondary windings S1 and S2 crack on a spherical former( which is concave in nature and contains the core). 2. Both the secondary windings have an equal number of turns, and we place them on either side of primary winding. 3. The primary winding is connected to an AC source which produces a flux in the air gap and voltages are convinced in secondary windings. 4. A portable soft iron core is placed inside the former and relegation to be measured is connected to the iron core. 5. The iron core is generally of high permeability which helps in reducing harmonics and high perceptivity of LVDT. 6. The LVDT is placed inside pristine sword casing because it’ll give electrostatic and electromagnetic shielding. 7. The both the secondary windings are connected in such a way that redounded affair is the difference between the voltages of two windings as shown. Principle of operation and working 1. As the primary is connected to an AC source so interspersing current and voltages are produced in the secondary of the LVDT. The affair in secondary S1 is e1 and in the secondary S2 is e2. So the discriminational affair is, eout = e1 – e2.(1.13.1) 2. Eq.(1.13.1) explains the principle of operation of LVDT. 3. Now three cases arise according to the locales of core which explains the working of LVDT Case I When the core is at null position( for no relegation) i. When the core is at null position also the flux linking with both the secondary windings is equal so the convinced emf is equal in both the windings. ii. So for no relegation the value of affair eout is zero as e1 and e2 both are equal. So it shows that no relegation took place. Case II When the core is moved to overhead of null position( For relegation to the upward of reference point) In this case the flux linking with secondary winding S1 is more as compared to flux linking with S2. Due to this e1 will be more as that of e2. Due to this affair voltage eout is positive. Case III When the core is moved to over of null position for relegation to the downcast of the reference point) In this case magnitude of e2 will be more as that of e1. Due to this affair eout will be negative and shows the affair to over of the reference point.
Que1.14. What are the advantages and disadvantages of LVDT transducers?
Answer Advantages 1. High affair and high perceptivity The LVDT gives a high affair and a high perceptivity. 2. Ruggedness These transducers can generally tolerate high degree of shock and climate especially when the core is spring loaded without any adverse goods. 3. Low hysteresis LVDTs show a low hysteresis and hence repetition is excellent under all conditions. 4. Low power consumption utmost of LVDTs consume power which is lower than 1W. Disadvantages 1. fairly large deportations are needed for perceptible discriminational affair. 2. They’re sensitive to slapdash glamorous fields but shielding is possible. This is done by furnishing glamorous securities with longitudinal places. 3. numerous a times, the transducer performance is affected by climate. 4. The entering instrument must be named to operate on AC signals or a demodulator network must be used if a DC affair is needed. 5. The dynamic response is limited mechanically by the mass of the core and electrically by the frequence of applied voltage.