Sensors & Transducers: Imaging Sensors Unit 2 Part 7

Que3.5. bandy reciprocal Essence Oxide Semiconductor  CMOS) imaging detectors. 

Answer  1. In a  reciprocal essence oxide semiconductor( CMOS) detector, the  charge from the photosensitive pixel is converted to a voltage at the  pixel  point and the signal is multiplexed by row and column to multiple on  chip digital- to- analog transformers( DACs). 

2. essential to its design, CMOS is a digital device. Each  point is basically a  photodiode and three transistors, performing the functions of resetting  or  cranking  the pixel, modification and charge conversion, and selection  or multiplexing as shown inFig.3.5.1. 

3. This leads to the high speed of CMOS detectors, but also low  perceptivity as  well as high fixed- pattern noise due to fabrication inconsistencies in the  multiple charges to voltage conversion circuits. 

4. The multiplexing configuration of a CMOS detector is  frequently coupled with  an electronic rolling shutter. 

5. Although, with  fresh transistors at the pixel  point, a global shutter  can be  fulfilled wherein all pixels are exposed  contemporaneously and   also readout  successionally. 

6. An  fresh advantage of a CMOS detector is its low power consumption  and  dispersion compared to an original CCD detector, due to  lower inflow  of charge, or current. 

7. Also, the CMOS detector’s capability to handle high light  situations without  blooming allows for its use in special high dynamic range cameras, indeed  able of imaging welding seams or light  fibers. 

8. CMOS cameras also tend to be  lower than their digital CCD  counterparts, as digital CCD cameras bear  fresh off- chip ADC  circuitry. 

9. The multilayer MOS fabrication process of a CMOS detector does not  allow for the use of microlenses on the chip, thereby  dwindling the  effective collection  effectiveness or fill factor of the detector in comparison  with a CCD  fellow. 

10. This low  effectiveness combined with pixel- to- pixel inconsistency contributes  to a lower signal- to- noise  rate and lower overall image quality than  CCD detectors.  

Que3.7. Explain the tasks included in machine vision system. 

Answer  Machine vision system is a detector used in the robots for viewing and  feting  an object with the help of a computer. 

b. It has several  factors  similar as a camera, digital computer, digitizing   tackle, and an interface  tackle & software. 

c. The machine vision process includes three important tasks  Sensing and digitizing image data 

1. A camera is used in the  seeing and digitizing tasks for viewing the  images. It’ll make use of special lighting  styles for gaining better  picture  discrepancy. 

2. These images are changed into the digital form, and it’s known as the  frame of the vision data. 

3. A frame  theft is incorporated for taking digitized image continuously  at 30 frames per second. rather of scene  protrusions, every frame is  divided as a matrix. 

4. By performing  slice operation on the image, the number of pixels  can be  linked. The pixels are generally described by the  rudiments of  the matrix. 

5. A pixel is  dropped to a value for measuring the intensity of light. As a  result of this process, the intensity of every pixel is changed into the  digital value and stored in the memory. 

Image processing and analysis 

1. In this function, the image interpretation and data reduction processes  are done. 

2. The threshold of an image frame is developed as a  double image for  reducing the data. 

3. The data reduction will help in converting the frame from raw image  data to the  point value data. The  point value data can be calculated  via computer programming. 

4. This is performed by matching the image descriptors like size and  appearance with the  preliminarily stored data on the computer. 

5. The image processing and analysis function will be made more effective  by training the machine vision system regularly. 

6. There are several data collected in the training process like length of  border,  external & inner periphery, area, and so on. 

7. Then, the camera will be  veritably helpful to identify the match between the  computer models and new objects of  point value data. 


1. The current  operations of machine vision in robotics include  examination,  part identification,  position, and  exposure. 

2. Research is ongoing in advanced  operations of machine vision for use  in complex  examination, guidance, and navigation.  

Que3.8. What’s VGR? 

Answer  1. In artificial pick and place  operations, Vision Guided Robot( VGR) is   generally robotic arms with integrated machine vision systems. 

2. The machine vision system helps the robot discover the  position of an  object in order to guide the robot to a asked  point for pick and place. 

Que3.9. Give the  operations of VGR systems. 

Answer  VGR systems are  generally used for high- volume,  largely unremarkable  processes. Some of the more common  operations include 

1. lading/ unloading  corridor from conveyors and feeding systems. 

2. lading/ unloading nested  corridor from servers or boxes. 

3. Part placement, assembly and packaging. 

4. Racking andde-racking. 

5. Palletizing andde-palletizing. 

6. caddy  selecting of  arbitrary  corridor.   

Que3.10. bandy about training a robot armature using the  Beast( AT) Model. 

Answer  1. The AT robot design model consists of a robot with useful behaviours  and tasks programmed by a  mortal  stoner and that executes those tasks  on verbal command. 

2. Physically, it’s a mobile platform carrying a camera for object recognition  and an arm for grasping and manipulating. A robot armature that  can  apply this model consists of 

i. A  geste director 

ii. A task  director 

iii. A dialog  director. 

3. The  geste director processes detector data to drive selectors,  similar  as the motors in the  bus( or legs) and arms of the robot. 

4. The task  director converts behaviours into tasks that achieve a  thing,  and it selects and executes tasks given to it by the dialog  director. 

5. The dialog  director is the interface between the  mortal  stoner and the  task  director. It communicates with the task  director to  elect tasks  and to  produce new tasks. 

6. The  geste director uses the  individualities and relative  locales of  objects to control the  colorful selectors of the robot, as determined by  the active behaviours. 

7. It consists of detector processors(e.g. the vision system) to identify and   detect objects, an analog  sense system to convert this information into  selector control signals, and selector processors for original control of  selector motors. 

8. The task  director executes tasks  preliminarily supplied by the  mortal   stoner. 

9. The task  director also determines when the task is done and whether  it was successful. 

10. Because the robot operates in an  changeable  terrain, tasks can  succeed or fail, and they can succeed in  further than one way. If a task  fails, the task  director must know what to do. 

11. The dialog  director provides structured natural language  communication between the task  director and the  mortal  stoner. 

12. The robot only contains what we put in it. We enter the expressions and   rulings we want it to fete , and we enter the responses to those   rulings. 

13. originally, only a small number of  rulings and tasks may be  needed  for the robot to be useful. This number can grow  fluently and incrementally  with time. 

14. Speech recognition-  generally a  delicate problem- can be  backed by the  finite nature of the vocabulary and dialog. The dialog  director includes  an episodic memory. 

15. This memory records task information from the task  director,  similar as  tasks completed and objects  honored as part of task  prosecution. The  episodic memory remembers tasks executed and information specific to  the task.

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