Que4.16. Give the operations of digital to analog motor.
Answer 1. Audio amplifier DACs are used to produce DC voltage gain with microcontroller commands. frequently, the DAC will be incorporated into an entire audio codec which includes signal processing features.
2. videotape encoder The videotape encoder system will reuse a videotape signal and shoot digital signals to a variety of DACs to produce analog videotape signals of colorful formats, along with optimizing of affair situations. As with audio codecs, these ICs may have integrated DACs.
3. Display electronics The graphic regulator will generally use a lookup table to induce data signals transferred to a videotape DAC for analog labors similar as Red, Green, Blue( RGB) signals to drive a display.
4. Data accession systems Data to be measured is digitized by an Analog- to- Digital Converter( ADC) and also transferred to a processor. The data accession will also include a process control end, in which the processor sends feedback data to a DAC for converting to analog signals.
5. Estimation The DAC provides dynamic estimation for gain and voltage neutralize for delicacy in test and dimension systems.
6. Motor control numerous motor controls bear voltage control signals, and a DAC is ideal for this operation which may be driven by a processor or regulator.
7. Data distribution system numerous artificial and plant lines bear multiple programmable voltage sources, and this can be generated by a bank of DACs that are multiplexed.
The use of a DAC allows the dynamic change of voltages during operation of a system.
8. Digital potentiometer nearly all digital potentiometers are grounded on the string DAC armature. With some reorganization of the resistor/ switch array, and the addition of an I2C compatible interface, a completely digital potentiometer can be enforced.
9. Software radio A DAC is used with a Digital Signal Processor( DSP) to convert a signal into analog for transmission in the mixer circuit, and also to the radio’s power amplifier and transmitter.
Que4.17. Why do we need analog to digital transformers?
Answer 1. In the real world, utmost data is characterized by analog signals. In order to manipulate the data using a microprocessor, we need to convert the analog signals to the digital signals, so that the microprocessor will be suitable to read, understand and manipulate the data.
2. Consider a temperature monitoring system wherein acquiring, assaying and recycling temperature data from detectors isn’t possible with digital computers and processors.
3. thus, this system needs an intermediate device to convert the analog temperature data into digital data in order to communicate with the digital processors like microcontrollers and microprocessors.
Que4.18. Why we use data accession system?
Answer 1. Improves the effectiveness and trustability of processes or ministry sword manufactories, serviceability, or a exploration lab have some kind of data accession device that quietly monitors some parameter.
ii. These collected data can be used to ameliorate effectiveness, insure trustability or insure that ministry operates safely.
2. Problems are anatomized and answered briskly With the use of real- time data accession systems, measures are generated and displayed without detention.
ii. A technician can intermediate briskly in any problem and make the machine reach optimum performance in lower time.
3. Data redundancy is reduced With the operation of a system of this type, companies forget to have indistinguishable data and borrow a technology that facilitates the analysis of the information attained, as it allows them to work without any noise that hinders the analysis.
4. Drop update crimes
i. This type of system automates data entry processes that were preliminarily done by hand.
ii. robotization reduces crimes by barring mortal error and loss.
5. Increased data integration and reliance on other programs
i. The smaller programs that intermediate in a more nimble process, the further nimble it’ll be.
ii. It ensures that the information is complete and correct without having to calculate on other types of operations.
6. bettered access to data for druggies through the use of host and query languages With these systems it’s easier to pierce the database and recoup information for processing and analysis.
7. Improves data security By automating the process of landing data from reality, the mortal factor is no longer involved and the security pitfalls associated with this procedure are reduced.
8. Data entry, storehouse and reclamation costs are reduced These three processes are cheaper because data is entered briskly, takes up less space, and can be recaptured in lower time.
9. Quality is controlled
i. A system of this type can confirm that a system is meeting the design specifications and that a product meets the stoner’s requirements.
ii. In addition, you can test whether a product has the quality needed for marketing and descry those that are imperfect.
10. Supervision of processes without mortal commerce With similar a system, the company’s colorful procedures are tracked and covered to identify and resolve faults briskly.
Que4.19. bandy counters and timekeepers.
Answer 1. The counter and timekeeper functions let druggies measure either the frequence or the period of an input signal, and the total number of beats or cycles captured in a specified time period.
2. These functions are enabled when the digital I/ O anchorages are set up as inputs.
3. Counter and timekeeper functions can be programmed to start and stop external tackle( or software) when certain logical conditions in the data accession system have been met, similar as turning on a stopcock after a specific number of beats are counted in a particular time period.
4. erected- in timekeepers also give “ palpitation sluice affair ” signals when the digital I/ O anchorages are programmed as labors.
5. These timekeepers give precise and stable affair signals and should be used for all operations rather of any software generated timing signals.
6. The input to a counter is generally a palpitation train. A counter measures the number of input beats during a given time period and also determines the frequence of the signal as shown inFig.4.19.1.
7. Also a counter counts the absolute number of input events, beats, or cycles during a given time period and labors the results as a total number as shown inFig.4.19.2.
8. A timekeeper measures the time period needed for a preprogrammed number of cycles of input signals to do as shown inFig.4.19.3.
10. The total count that the data accession system can handle depends on the counter circuit’s number of bits.
11. For illustration, a 4- bit counter( 24) can add only 16 beats before resetting, but a 16- bit counter( 216) can add,535 beats, and a – bit counter( 224) can add counts.
12. Counters can be programmed to count up or down. untoward stages can be protruded to increase the count by numerous powers of two with a carry bit.
13. That is, when the first counter reaches its maximum count, it labors a carry bit to the coming counter in the waterfall which also supplements its count by one.
14. For either protruded ornon-cascaded untoward channels, each channel can be configured for palpitation- counting mode Specifies that each counter should be cleared or reset to zero after being read and placed into the input checkup list. ii. Add- counting mode Specifies that each counter is to free run and won’t be cleared during the input accession.