Sensors & Transducers: Counters and Timers Unit 4 Part 3

Que4.16. Give the  operations of digital to analog motor. 

Answer  1. Audio amplifier DACs are used to produce DC voltage gain with  microcontroller commands. frequently, the DAC will be incorporated into an  entire audio codec which includes signal processing features. 

2. videotape encoder The  videotape encoder system will reuse a  videotape signal  and  shoot digital signals to a variety of DACs to produce analog  videotape  signals of  colorful formats, along with optimizing of affair  situations. As  with audio codecs, these ICs may have integrated DACs. 

3. Display electronics The graphic  regulator will  generally use a lookup  table to  induce data signals  transferred to a  videotape DAC for analog  labors   similar as Red, Green, Blue( RGB) signals to drive a display. 

4. Data accession systems Data to be measured is digitized by an  Analog- to- Digital Converter( ADC) and  also  transferred to a processor. The  data accession will also include a process control end, in which the  processor sends feedback data to a DAC for converting to analog signals. 

5. Estimation The DAC provides dynamic estimation for gain and voltage   neutralize for  delicacy in test and  dimension systems. 

6. Motor control numerous motor controls bear voltage control signals,  and a DAC is ideal for this  operation which may be driven by a processor  or  regulator. 

7. Data distribution system numerous artificial and  plant lines bear  multiple programmable voltage sources, and this can be generated by a  bank of DACs that are multiplexed.

The use of a DAC allows the dynamic  change of voltages during operation of a system. 

8. Digital potentiometer nearly all digital potentiometers are grounded on  the string DAC armature. With some reorganization of the  resistor/ switch array, and the addition of an I2C compatible interface, a  completely digital potentiometer can be  enforced. 

9. Software radio A DAC is used with a Digital Signal Processor( DSP)  to convert a signal into analog for transmission in the mixer circuit, and   also to the radio’s power amplifier and transmitter.   

Que4.17. Why do we need analog to digital transformers? 

Answer  1. In the real world,  utmost data is characterized by analog signals. In order  to manipulate the data using a microprocessor, we need to convert the  analog signals to the digital signals, so that the microprocessor will be   suitable to read, understand and manipulate the data. 

2. Consider a temperature monitoring system wherein acquiring,  assaying  and recycling temperature data from detectors isn’t possible with digital  computers and processors. 

3. thus, this system needs an intermediate device to convert the  analog temperature data into digital data in order to communicate with  the digital processors like microcontrollers and microprocessors.   

Que4.18. Why we use data accession system? 

Answer  1. Improves the  effectiveness and  trustability of processes or   ministry  sword  manufactories,  serviceability, or a  exploration lab have some kind of data accession  device that quietly monitors some parameter. 

ii. These collected data can be used to ameliorate  effectiveness,  insure  trustability  or  insure that  ministry operates safely. 

2. Problems are anatomized and answered  briskly  With the use of real- time data accession systems,  measures are  generated and displayed without  detention. 

ii. A technician can  intermediate  briskly in any problem and make the machine  reach optimum performance in  lower time. 

3. Data redundancy is reduced With the  operation of a system of this  type, companies forget to have  indistinguishable data and borrow a technology  that facilitates the analysis of the information  attained, as it allows  them to work without any noise that hinders the analysis. 

4. Drop update crimes

i. This type of system automates data entry processes that were  preliminarily  done by hand. 

ii. robotization reduces  crimes by  barring  mortal error and  loss. 

5. Increased data integration and reliance on other programs 

i. The smaller programs that  intermediate in a more  nimble process, the  further nimble it’ll be. 

ii. It ensures that the information is complete and correct without having  to calculate on other types of  operations. 

6. bettered access to data for  druggies through the use of host and  query languages With these systems it’s easier to  pierce the database  and  recoup information for processing and analysis. 

7. Improves data security By automating the process of  landing  data from reality, the  mortal factor is no longer involved and the security   pitfalls associated with this procedure are reduced. 

8. Data entry,  storehouse and  reclamation costs are reduced These three  processes are cheaper because data is entered  briskly, takes up less  space, and can be  recaptured in  lower time. 

9. Quality is controlled 

i. A system of this type can confirm that a system is meeting the design  specifications and that a product meets the  stoner’s  requirements. 

ii. In addition, you can test whether a product has the quality  needed for  marketing and  descry those that are  imperfect. 

10. Supervision of processes without  mortal commerce With  similar  a system, the company’s  colorful procedures are tracked and covered  to identify and resolve faults  briskly.  

Que4.19. bandy counters and  timekeepers. 

Answer  1. The counter and  timekeeper functions let  druggies measure either the  frequence  or the period of an input signal, and the total number of  beats or cycles  captured in a specified time period. 

2. These functions are enabled when the digital I/ O anchorages are set up as  inputs. 

3. Counter and  timekeeper functions can be programmed to start and stop  external  tackle( or software) when certain logical conditions in the  data accession system have been met,  similar as turning on a  stopcock after  a specific number of  beats are counted in a particular time period. 

4. erected- in  timekeepers also  give “  palpitation sluice affair ” signals when the  digital I/ O anchorages are programmed as  labors. 

5. These  timekeepers  give precise and stable affair signals and should be  used for all  operations  rather of any software generated timing signals. 

6. The input to a counter is  generally a  palpitation train. A counter measures the  number of input  beats during a given time period and  also determines  the  frequence of the signal as shown inFig.4.19.1. 

7. Also a counter counts the absolute number of input events,  beats, or  cycles during a given time period and  labors the results as a total  number as shown inFig.4.19.2. 

8. A  timekeeper measures the time period  needed for a preprogrammed number  of cycles of input signals to  do as shown inFig.4.19.3. 

10. The total count that the data accession system can handle depends on  the counter circuit’s number of bits. 

11. For  illustration, a 4- bit counter( 24) can add only 16  beats before  resetting, but a 16- bit counter( 216) can add,535  beats, and a – bit counter( 224) can add counts. 

12. Counters can be programmed to count up or down. untoward stages can  be protruded to increase the count by  numerous powers of two with a carry  bit. 

13. That is, when the first counter reaches its maximum count, it  labors a  carry bit to the coming counter in the  waterfall which  also  supplements its  count by one. 

14. For either protruded ornon-cascaded  untoward channels, each channel  can be configured for  palpitation- counting mode Specifies that each counter should be cleared  or reset to zero after being read and placed into the input  checkup list.  ii. Add- counting mode Specifies that each counter is to free run  and won’t be cleared during the input accession.

Leave a Comment