Process of Tendering Unit 2 Part 4

Que2.19. What are the colorful Indian laws related to labor safety and weal? 

Answer  Following are laws act related to labor safety and  weal 

1. Payment of stipend Act

 i. This act is related to the payment of a stipend. This act was introduced to regulate the payment of stipends,  duty of forfeitures, etc. 

ii. According to this act, stipends are to be paid instantly on a yearly base and if any person is terminated from services, his stipend should be settled within 2 days of the termination. 

2. minimal stipend Act 

i. According to this act, provision is made for the statutory  obsession of a   minimal rate of  stipend in the establishment. 

ii. According to this act, different  minimal rates can be fixed depending  on the class of work, type of  labor force employed- grown-ups,  endless  hand or, apprentice and depending on the  position of work. 

3. Manufactories Act  i. Under this act, the health, safety,  weal, working hours, periodic  leave, accidents and any penalties are taken care of. 

ii. Regarding health, arrangements for proper cleanliness of the demesne,  disposal of wastes, ventilation and comfortable working temperature  are to be maintained. 

iii. typically, the working hours are  confined to 8 hours/ day with a lunch  break for1/2 hr and a aggregate of not  further than 48 hours/ week. , compensatory leave is to be If the worker is engaged onholidays.given. Over time  stipend are at twice the ordinary rate of  stipend.  Women workers should be employed only from 6a.m. to 7p.m. 

vi. In case of accident, proper compensation is to be paid as per the  provision. 

4. Contract Labour( Regulation and invalidation) Act, 1970( Amended ) 

i. This act contains the  vittles for  perfecting the condition of contract  labour. 

ii. According to this Act contractors should get themselves registered and   gain  instruments of enrollment . 

iii. The  weal and health  vittles to be  handed to the contract labour  include rest apartments, proper ventilation, lighting, water  force and  aseptic  installations. 

iv. First aid  installations and washing are also contained in this act.  Payment of  stipend to each worker is to be made within the  specified  period. 

5. Workmen’s Compensation, Act, 1923( Amended- 1984) 

i. This act is for  furnishing social security to the workers. Compensation  is to be paid to the workers in case of accidents sustained during the  course of employment and the  quantum is decided upon its  soberness. 

ii. Under this act, fiscal relief is given in the following cases 

a. In case of death,  b. On account of occupational  conditions, 

c. For  endless/ partial disablement, and d. Half-yearly payments for temporary disablement. 

6. The Trade Union Act, 1926 i. Trade union is an association of persons formed  substantially for the purpose  of regulating the relations between employers and  workers. 

ii. A minimum of 7 workers can join together and form a trade union.

iii. The union has to get itself registered with the  register of trade union.  The applicable details similar as the name, address, the  objects of forming  the union and the subscription rate are all to be specified before  enrollment . 

Que2.20. Explain in detail about different types of contract and  their relative advantages and disadvantages. 


Explain  colorful types of contract system with advantages and  Disadvantages. 

Answer  Types of Contract The following are the  colorful types of contracts  for  prosecution of civil engineering  workshop, with their relative  graces and   faults 

1. Item Rate Contract  Item rate contract is also known as unit price contract or schedule  contract. 

ii. A contract undertakes the  prosecution of work on an item rate base. 

iii. He’s  needed to quote rate for individual item of work on the base of  schedule of amounts( i.e., bill of amounts) furnished by the  department. 

iv. The  quantum to be  entered by the  compression depends upon the  amounts of work actually performed. 

v. The payment to the contractor is made on the base of the detailed   dimension of different  particulars of work actually executed by him.  graces 

i. This  system ensures a  veritably detailed analysis of cost and payment to the  contractor and is grounded upon detailed  measures of each item actually  done, so this  system is more scientific. 

ii. Changes in  delineations and amounts of individual item can be made as  per conditions within agreed limits.  faults 

i. The total cost of work can only be known after completion. As such the   proprietor may face  fiscal difficulty if the final cost is  mainly high. 

ii. fresh staff is  needed to take detailed  measures of work. 

iii. The  compass of saving with use of inferior quality accoutrements  may prompt  the contractor to do so. 

2. Chance Rate Contract 

i. In this form of contract, the department draws up ‘ item rate tender ’ i.e.,  bill of amounts with rate,  quantum and total  quantum. 

ii. The contractors are  needed to offer to carry out the work as per with  the rates shown in the specific price schedule or some chance above  or some chance below the rate indicated in the schedule of work  attached with the tender. 

iii. The chance above or below or at par is applicable on the overall cost  of the work also.  graces 

i. The ranking amongst the contractors is  fluently known just on the opening  of the tenders. 

ii. As there’s no provision to quote contractors own rate for an individual  item, benefit due to increased  volume with a  salutary rate can not be   profited by the contractor. The chance of unstable tender gets   excluded.  faults 

i. A contractor is  needed to write down only the chance above or at  par or below, it’s  veritably easy to write such a rate in many  twinkles before  the time of submission of the tender. 

ii. By negotiating among the contractors, two or  further may quote the same  rate in order to get a part of the work at a high rate. It may be  delicate  to divide the work at equal  quantum among the contractors. 

3. Lump- Sum Contract 

i. In this type of contract, a contractor is  needed to quote a fixed sum for   prosecution of work complete in all respect in the quested time according  to the  delineation, design and specifications supplied to him with the tender.

ii. The departmental schedule of rate for  colorful  particulars of work is also   handed which regulates the payment of the contractor in respect of  any additions and  differences which are made over the original work. 

iii. On the completion of the work, no detailed  dimension of different   particulars of work is  demanded but the whole work done must be compared and  checked with the  delineations and specifications.  graces 

i. As the total cost of the work known before hand, the  proprietor can arrange  the fund in time. 

ii. Detailed  measures of the work done aren’t  needed except in  respect of additions and  differences. 

iii. The contractor’s profit  substantially lies in the completion time. Hence for  getting  further profit the contractor tries to complete the work as early as  possible.  faults  It’s  veritably essential that the work must be defined directly, specifications  must be completely specified and the  point conditions must be completely explained   else  controversies can arise  latterly on. 

ii. For any intermediate payment, the value of work done shouldn’t be   lower than the payment being made. 

4. Labour Contract 

i. In labour contract, the contractor undertakes contract for the labour  portion only banning the accoutrements  which are arranged and supplied at  the work  point by the department/  proprietor. 

ii. The contractor engages the  needful labour and gets the work done as  per  delineations and specifications.

iii. It’s an item rate base for labour portion only and the contractor is paid  for the amounts of work done on  dimension of different  particulars of  work at the quested rate in the contract agreement.  graces 

i. The accoutrements  stored by the department are  therefore utilised.  ii. The work done through labour contract is of superior quality as better  quality accoutrements  are arranged by the  proprietor. 

iii. The overall cost of construction may be less, as no profit is paid on the  cost of accoutrements . 

iv. This system is  veritably accessible for private  structure construction.  faults 

i. A large  storehouse area is  needed to store the  colorful kinds of accoutrements  to  be used in the construction under a constant guarding.  ii. This system isn’t suitable for government department. Because of  lengthy formalities in procurement of accoutrements , it’s  veritably  delicate to   force each and every material readily to the labour contractor. 

5. Cost Plus Chance Rate Contract 

i. In this type of contract, a contractor agrees to take the work of  construction on the  factual cost of work plus an agreed chance in  addition, for his services. 

ii. It’s generally  espoused when the labour and material costs are liable to  change heavily in the  request. 

iii. The contractor arranges accoutrements  and labour at his cost and keeps  proper account which is paid by the department or  proprietor with certain  chance( say 10) of the cost of construction as his profit. An  agreement is made consequently in advance.  graces 

i. The contract can be  snappily drawn up and agreed and work can be  completed in the shortest possible time. 

ii. It’s particularly suitable when work can not be executed by other types  of contracts due to  query and  oscillations in the  request rates of  labour and accoutrements .  faults 

i. The contractor’s only aim is to make the cost of the  design as high as  possible in order to seek lesser  periphery of profit. 

ii. A proper control over purchase of accoutrements  and of labour shall have to  be exercised by the department or the  proprietor.

Leave a Comment