PM&E Unit 1 Long Answers

Que3.11. bandy the  colorful types of civil engineering  construction and their unique features. 

Answer  Following are the  colorful types of civil engineering construction  1. Agricultural generally  provident  structures, and other advancements,  for agrarian purposes. exemplifications include barns,  outfit and beast  shanties, specialized fencing,  storehouse silos and elevators, and water  force  and rainspouts  similar as wells, tanks, and dikes.  2. Domestic Domestic construction includes houses, apartments,  townhouses, and other  lower, low- rise  casing, small office types.  3. marketable This refers to construction for the  requirements of private  commerce, trade, and services. exemplifications include office  structures, “ big  box ” stores, shopping centers and  promenades,  storages, banks, theaters,   pavilions, resorts, golf courses, and larger domestic structures  similar as  high- rise  hospices.  4. Institutional This  order is for the  requirements of government and other  public associations. exemplifications include  seminaries, fire and police stations,  libraries, galleries, dormitories,  exploration  structures, hospitals,  transportation outstations, some military  installations, and governmental   structures.  5. Artificial structures and other constructed  particulars used for  storehouse  and product  product, including chemical and power  shops,  sword  manufactories,   oil painting refineries and platforms, manufacturing  shops, channels, and  seaports.  6. Heavy Civil The construction of transportation  structure  similar  as roads, islands,  roads, coverts,  airfields, and fortified military   installations. heads are also included, but  utmost other water- related   structure is considered environmental.  7. Environmental Environmental construction was part of heavy civil,  but is now separate, dealing with  systems that ameliorate the  terrain.  Some  exemplifications are water and wastewater treatment  shops, aseptic  and storm seamsters, solid waste  operation, and air pollution control. 

Que3.12. bandy  operation system in construction. 

Answer  To  insure smooth working in the  design work, certain  crucial  rudiments  must be placed in the association.  The  design  operation system consists of seven  factors or subsystems.  These are as follows  1. Project Planning and Design  i. The planning and designing system is  maybe the most important   element, on it depends the successful completion of a  design.  ii. Project planning is concerned with laying down certain  objects,  thing  and strategies. Better results can be achieved if the design of the   design work is  ranged.  2. Project Information System  i. In organizing the  perpetration of  design work, the information  system must be good.  ii. still, one of the problems some associations have is that the  data on  design status is collected, reused and distributed at  similar  large time intervals so as to make the information useless in terms of  control.  3. Project Control System  Monitoring and control are the importantsub-sets of the  design   perpetration process. The  ideal of monitoring is to see  diversions  from the planned  design performance.  ii. On the other hand, control is making decision to deflect  systems  inputs,  coffers and schedules in order to  insure that the anticipated   diversions don’t materialize.  4. design ways and prosecution System  i. In order to  insure timely completion of a  design,  director makes use  of certain  ways and methodologies. These may  correspond of certain  technology, PERT/ CPM scheduling and  going  designs.  ii. In addition to these  ways, the  design  prosecution plan, working  packaging plan, procedure plan and  mortal resource plan are also  there.  5. Project Organization System  i. A system approach will enable the  design  director to reduce the  threat  which is  essential in  utmost  systems.  ii. An association is  frequently  demanded by the  design  director for securing co-ordinated  sweats of all actors. This association must define  the limits of authority, responsibility and responsibility of actors.  6. Cultural System  i. The  design association operates in a given artistic  terrain.  ii. The culture of an association is the  summation of the values, traditions,  beliefs and behaviours of the actors of the  design association,  ago, change is  defied, it must be  duly planned to avoid troubles.  7. Human System  Human  coffers system is the most important aspect of the  design   operation.  ii. Project  ways and methodologies are of no use if  labor force warrant  acceptable chops and  provocation.  iii. A  design  director needs  veritably good interpersonal chops. These include  the capability to  give good leadership for  design  platoon, the capability to  deal with other  ingredients for  demanded  coffers, chops in motivating   platoon members, good communication chopsetc. 

Que3.13. bandy the  significance of control system in successful  completion of a  design i.e., with respect to  compass, cost, time and  quality. 

Answer  1. Project controls system encompass the people, processes and tools used  to plan, manage and  alleviate cost and schedule issues and any  threat  events that may impact a  design.  2. The traditional measures of  design success are the accomplishment of a   compass in budget, on time, and with required quality.  3. Control system helps in successful completion of a  design with respect  to  Cost  a. The  fiscal commitment of the  design is dependent on several  variables. There are the  coffers involved, from accoutrements  to people,  which include labor costs.  Cost processes include cost estimating to figure out the  demanded  fiscal  commitment for all  coffers necessary to complete the job.  Control system helps in  icing that your estimates are as accurate as  possible.  ii. compass  compass deals with the specific conditions or tasks necessary to complete  the  design.  compass is important to manage on any  design, because if you ca n’t control  the  compass of the  design, you ’re not likely to deliver it on time or under  budget.  Control system helps in controlling the  compass of the  design.  iii. Time  a. The schedule is the estimated  quantum of time  distributed to complete the   design, or producing the deliverable.  b. This is achieved by noting all the tasks necessary to move from the  launch  to the finish of the  design.  Control system helps the  design stay on track.  iv. Quality  Quality is critical and the most important factor for completion of a   design on time and within the allocated budget. ,  imperfect accoutrements  or work  If proper quality checks aren’t inplace.may cause damage to  outfit and  installations.  Control system helps in maintaining the quality in the  design. 

Que3.14. How are cost control systems classified? Explain. 

Answer  Cost Control ways Cost can be controlling by employing the  following  styles  1. Accoutrements Control  Accoutrements control may be defined as the methodical  control over the  procurement,  storehouse and  operation of accoutrements  so as to maintain an indeed  inflow of accoutrements  and at the same time avoiding  inordinate investment in   supplies.  ii. From the below  description we can  decide the following important aspects  To  insure the smooth inflow of  product without interruptions.  Prevention of  inordinate investments in accoutrements  stock.  2. Labor Control  i. In order to achieve the effective application of force  coffers, the   operation has to apply proper system of labour cost control.  ii The labour cost control may be determined on the base of establishment  of standard of  effectiveness and comparison of  factual with  norms.  iii. The  operation applies  colorful  ways for the effective control of  labour costs as under  Scientific  system of  product planning.  Use of labour budgets.  Establishment of labour  norms.  Proper system of labour performance report.  Effective system of job evaluation and job analysis.  Concoct a proper system of control over ideal time and unusual  overtime work.  3. Outflow Control  total of all charges relating to  circular material cost,  circular  labour cost and  circular charges is known as outflow.  ii. Measures to controlling overhead costs  force counts( avoid  inordinate/ wrong  force  particulars).  Talk interest terms.  Talk rental terms.  drop working capital.  utensil quality control system.  rethink deals and marketing costs.   drop transportation cost.  4. Standard going  enforcing this  position of control can have a profound positive impact  on  gains over the long term.  ii. The following four  way are associated with standard  going   produce a  birth.  Calculate a  friction.  probe  dissonances.  Take action.  5. Budgetary Control  Budgetary control is the process of determining  colorful  factual results  with  calculated  numbers for the enterprise for the  unborn period and   norms set  also comparing the  calculated  numbers with the  factual  performance for calculating  dissonances, if any.  ii. The comparison of  calculated and  factual  numbers will enable the   operation to find out  disagreement and take remedial measures at a  proper time.  6. Capital Expenditure Controlling  Capital expenditure controlling refers to the  conduct, processes and tools  used to identify,  read, assess, decide and manage capital expenditure.  ii. Capital expenditure can be used to replace or expand being factory and   outfit, to invest in new  outfit or to make use of strategic   openings in new  product or  request  surrounds.  iii. In the broader sense capital expenditure controlling is also applied to  expenditure incurred in the  environment of  juggernauts or  systems typical for  areas  similar as marketing or  exploration and development.

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