OOSD Important Questions part 1

Que1.1. Explain object- acquainted approach with its benefits. Answer In the object- acquainted approach, the focus is on landing the structure and geste
of information systems into small modules that combines both data and process. It identifies the objects in problem sphere, classifying them in terms of data and geste
. Following are the benefits of object- acquainted approach a. It facilitates changes in the system at low cost. b. It promotes the exercise of factors. c. It simplifies the problem of integrating factors to configure large system. d. It simplifies the design of distributed systems. Que1.2. Describe the rudiments of object- acquainted system. Answer Following are the rudiments of object- acquainted system Objects a. An object is commodity that’s exists within problem sphere and can be linked by data( trait) or geste
. b. All palpable realities( pupil, case) and some impalpable realities ( bank account) are modeled as object. Object acquainted System Design 1 – 3 L( CS/ IT- Sem- 5) Attributes They describe information about the object. geste a. It specifies what the object can do. b. It defines the operation performed on objects. Class a. A class encapsulates the data and its geste
. Objects with analogous meaning and purpose grouped together as class. styles styles determine the geste
of a class. They’re nothing further than an action that an object can perform. Communication a. A communication is a function or procedure call from one object to another. They’re information transferred to objects to spark styles. Que1.3. Describe the features of object- acquainted languages? AKTU 2012- 13, Marks 05 OR Explain the major features of Object- acquainted Programming. AKTU 2013- 14, Marks 05 Answer Features of object- acquainted language are Encapsulation Encapsulation means that data are reprised inside an unassailable shell along with the styles needed to use it. ii. The only way to reach the data is through these particular styles iii. It’s the medium that binds together law and the data it manipulates. iv. This conception is also used to hide the internal representation, or state, of an object from the outside. Polymorphism Polymorphism means having numerous forms. ii. Polymorphism is the capability of a communication to be displayed in further than one form. iii. It plays an important part in allowing objects having different internal structure to partake the same external interface. heritage heritage is the capability to produce classes that partake the attributes and styles of being classes, but with further specific features. ii. heritage is substantially used for law reusability. Que1.4. Describe way of object- acquainted design. AKTU 2010- 11, Marks 05 Answer way of object- acquainted design System analysis i. In this stage a statement of the problem is formulated and a model is figure. This phase show the important parcels associated with the situation. ii. The analysis model is a terse, precise abstraction and agreement on how the asked system must be developed. iii. The ideal is to give a model that can be understood by any operation experts in the area. System design i. At this stage, the complete system armature is designed. ii. In this stage the whole system is divided into subsystems, grounded on system analysis model and the proposed armature of the system. Object design i. At this stage, a design model is developed grounded on the analysis model. ii. The object design decides the data structures and algorithms demanded to apply each of the classes in the system. Object acquainted System Design 1 – 5 L( CS/ IT- Sem- 5) Final perpetration i. At this stage, the final perpetration of classes and connections developed during object design takes place. ii. factual perpetration should be done using software engineering practice. This helps to develop a flexible and extensible system. Que1.7. What do you understand by object- acquainted technology? bandy the pros and cons of object- acquainted technology with suitable illustration. AKTU 2011- 12, Marks 10 In procedural programming, program is divided into small corridor called functions. Procedural programming follows top down approach. There’s no access specifier in procedural programming. Adding new data and function is not easy. Procedural programming does not have any proper way for caching data so it’s less secure. In procedural programming, overfilling isn’t possible. In procedural programming, function is more important than data. Procedural programming is grounded on fantastic world. exemplifications C, FORTRAN, Pascal, Basicetc. In object- acquainted programming, program is divided into small corridor called objects. Object- acquainted programming follows bottom up approach. Object- acquainted programming has access specifiers like private, public, defendedetc. Adding new data and function is easy. Object- acquainted programming provides data hiding so it’s further secure. Overloading is possible in object- acquainted programming. In object- acquainted programming, data is more important than function. Object- acquainted programming is grounded on real world. OR What do you mean by object- acquainted ways? Explain with some exemplifications. Answer Object- acquainted Technology( OOT) is an approach to program association and development that attempts to reduce some of the issues with conventional programming ways. It’s a new way of organizing and developing programs and has nothing to do with any particular programming language. still, not all languages are suitable to apply the object- acquainted generalities or apply partial features of object- acquainted generalities. Pros of object- acquainted technology are It allows resemblant development If we’re working with programming brigades, also each can work singly of one another once the modular classes have been worked out. The modular classes are frequently applicable Once the modular classes have been created, they can frequently be used again in other operations or systems. The coding is easier to maintain With OOP, because our rendering base has been consolidated, it’s easier to produce a justifiable procedure law. b. That makes it easier to keep our data accessible when it becomes necessary to perform an upgrade. c. This process also improves the security of the programming since high situations of confirmation are frequently needed. Cons of object- acquainted technology are It’s hamstrung Object- acquainted programming tends to use further CPU than indispensable options. b. That can make it hamstrung choice when there are specialized limitations involved due to the size. It’s scalable , also it can produce a massive quantum of If OOP is out ofcontrol.bloated, gratuitous law. b. When that occurs, the outflow rises and that makes it delicate to keep costs down. It causes duplication OOP systems tend to be easier to design than apply. That’s because of the modular classes that are so flexible in their operation. preface 1 – 8 L( CS/ IT- Sem- 5) c. We may be suitable to get new systems over and running at a lesser speed, but that comes at the cost of having systems occasionally feel like they’ve been reproduced. Que1.8. What do you understand by object identity? Explain with an illustration. Answer Object identity is a property of data that’s created in the environment of an object data model, where an object is assigned a unique internal object identifier, or object ID. The object identifier is used to define associations between objects and to support reclamation and comparison of object- acquainted data grounded on the internal identifier rather than the trait values of an object. There are numerous ways for relating objects in programming languages. OO languages have erected- in mechanisms for relating objects. There is no need to produce unequivocal object identifier types. For illustration In C an objects factual memory address serves as a unique identifier and can be attained by applying the’ &’ driver to an object or object reference. Object identity can be tested by pointer comparison. Que1.9. Explain encapsulation with illustration. OR bandy the conception of encapsulation with suitable illustration. OR What do you mean by encapsulation? How does the object- acquainted conception of communication passing help to synopsize the perpetration of an object, including its data? Answer Encapsulation consists of separating the external aspects of an object, which are accessible to other objects, from the internal perpetration details of the object, which are hidden from other objects. Encapsulation prevents a program from getting so interdependent that a small change has massive ripple goods. The perpetration of an object can be changed without affecting the operations that use it. One may want to change the perpetration of an object to ameliorate performance, fix a bug, consolidate law, or for porting. To understand encapsulation, let us consider the object ‘ Hand ’. The attributes of workers say ‘ payment ’ is kept retired inside the object and may be made accessible only through the system meant for the purpose. The system resides within the object. For illustration, if getSalary() is a system of the object ‘ Hand ’ to get the payment of an hand, also the payment of an hand can be attained by no other way but by this system. Other objects can also shoot dispatches to the object ‘ Hand ’ and get the payment of an hand by the getSalary() system. Other objects need not be concerned with the attributes and internal structure of the object. This is shown inFig.1.9.1. The figure shows that attributes are hidden inside the object by a system. Que1.10. Write short note on information caching. Answer Information caching is the process of hiding the details of an object or function. The caching of these details results in an abstraction, which reduces the external complexity and makes the object or function easier to use. In addition, information caching effectively decouples the calling law from the internal workings of the object or function being called, which makes it possible to change the retired portions without having to also change the calling law. Encapsulation is a common fashion programmers use to apply information caching. Advantage of information caching is yielding inflexibility, similar as allowing a programmer to more readily modify a program. This also may be done by placing source law within modules for easy access in the future, as the program develops and evolves. Que1.11. What do you mean by polymorphism? Explain it with an illustration. OR What do you mean by polymorphism? Is this conception only applicable to object- acquainted systems? Explain. OR Define polymorphism. Is this conception only applicable to objectoriented systems? Explain. Answer Polymorphism means having numerous forms. Polymorphism is the capability of a communication to be displayed in further than one form. It plays an important part in allowing objects having different internal structure to partake the same external interface. An operation is a function that may be applied to or by objects in a class. Open, near, hide, and redisplay are operations on class Window. All objects in a class partake the same operations. Each operation has a target object as an implicit argument. The geste
of the operation depends on the class of its target. An object “ knows ” its class, and hence the right perpetration of the operation. The same operation may apply to numerous different classes. Such an operation is polymorphic; i.e., the same operation takes on different forms in different classes. For illustration, the class train may have an operation print. Different styles could be enforced to print ASCII lines, print double lines, and print digitized picture lines. All these styles logically perform the same task. still, each system may be enforced by a different piece of law. connection of polymorphism In programming languages there are two types of polymorphism ad- hoc and universal. There are two kinds of universal polymorphism parametric and subtyping. Ad- hoc polymorphism is a kind of polymorphism in which polymorphic functions can be applied to arguments of different types. In universal( parametric) polymorphism, the polymorphic functions are written without citation of any specific type. The ad- hoc polymorphism is applicable in both traditional and objectoriented programming surroundings, whereas universal polymorphism only applies to object- acquainted systems.

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