Que3.1. bandy design life cycle and performance objects.
Answer Project Life Cycle All systems can be counterplotted to the following simple life cycle structure Starting the design organizing and preparing carrying out the work closing the design. Following are the four phases of design life cycle
1. inauguration Phase
i. During the inauguration phase, the design ideal or need is linked.
ii. An applicable response to the need is proved in a business case with recommended result options.
iii. A feasibility study is conducted to probe whether each option addresses the design ideal and a final recommended result is determined.
2. Planning Phase
i. In the planning phase, design result is further developed in as important detail as possible and the way necessary to meet the design’s ideal are planned.
ii. In this step, the platoon identifies all of the work to be done. The design’s tasks and resource conditions are linked, along with the strategy for producing them.
iii. A design plan is created outlining the conditioning, tasks, dependences , and timeframes.
iv. The design director coordinates the medication of a design budget by furnishing cost estimates for the labor, outfit, and accoutrements costs. The budget is used to cover and control cost expenditures during design perpetration.
3. perpetration( prosecution) Phase
i. In this phase, the design plan is put into stir and the work of the design is performed.
ii. Progress is continuously covered and applicable adaptations are made and recorded as dissonances from the original plan.
iii. The design director uses this information to maintain control over the direction of the design by comparing the progress reports with the design plan to measure the performance of the design conditioning and take corrective action as demanded.
4. ending Phase During the final check, or completion phase, the emphasis is on releasing the final deliverables to the client, handing over design attestation to the business, terminating supplier contracts, releasing design coffers, and communicating the check of the design to all stakeholders.
Performance objects Following are the colorful performance objects
1. Quality Quality is a measure of excellence or a state of being free from blights, scarcities, and significant variations.
2. Speed How snappily does product take and how snappily can it respond to changes in demand.
3. responsibility How invariant, harmonious and dependable a business products are.
4. Inflexibility How snappily operations processes can acclimate to changes in the request.
5. Customization Refers to creation of personalized products to meet the specific requirements of guests.
6. Cost Minimization of charges so that the operations function can be completed as cheaply as possible.
Que3.2. Define association and explain its types.
OR What are the different types of organizational structures? figure in detail the characteristics, advantages and disadvantages of each structure.
Answer Organization Organization is the methodical arrangement of people working together towards a common purpose.
ii. It’s composed of a group of individualities acting as a unit for the attainment of an ideal. Types of Organization Following are the colorful types of association
1. Line Organization
i. Under line association, each department is generally a complete selfcontained unit. A separate person will look after the conditioning of the department and he has full control over the department.
ii. The same position directors don’t give or admit orders amongst themselves. But they admit orders from their immediate master and give orders to their inferiors.
Characteristics of Line Organization
i. It consists of direct perpendicular connections.
ii. Authority flows from top- position to nethermost position.
iii. Departmental heads are given full freedom to control their departments.
iv. A elderly member has direct command over his inferiors. Actuality of direct relationship between elders and inferiors.
vi. The superior takes opinions within the compass of his authority.
It’s simple in form with a clear cut division of authority.
ii. The opinions are speedy and their perpetration is quick.
iii. It promotes lesser collaboration and keeps better discipline.
iv. The responsibility can be fluently fixed.
v. further provident and flexible.
Lack of specification and action.
iii. Limited communication and private approach.
2. Functional Organization
i. Under functional association, colorful specialists are for colorful functions performed in an association.
ii. These specialists will attend to the work which is common to different functions of colorful departments.
iii. Workers, under functional association, admit instructions from colorful specialists. Characteristics of Functional Organization
i. The work is divided according to specified functions.
ii. Authority is given to a specialist to give orders and instructions in relation to specific function.
iii. Functional authority has right and power to give command throughout the line with reference to his specified area. Advantage of Functional Organisation Efficiency Greater effectiveness is achieved because of every function performing a limited number of functions.
ii. Economy Specialization collected with standardization facilitates maximum product and provident costs.
iii. Expansion Expert knowledge of functional director facilitates better control and supervision. Disadvantages of Functional Organisation It’s delicate to define who the ‘ master ’ is.
ii. Itde-emphasizes the position of the line association.
iii. adding the outflow charges.
3. Line and Staff Organization
i. The line officers have authority to take opinions and apply them to achieve the objects of the association.
ii. The line officers may be supported by the staff officers while framing the programs and plans and taking opinions association.
iii. The authority flows from top position to the lower position of the association through the line officers while the staff officers attached to the colorful departments advise the departments. Characteristics of Line and Staff Organization.
i. It consists of direct perpendicular connections. ii. Departmental head is given full freedom to manage his department. iii. It doesn’t make provision for staff specialists.
iv. Actuality of superior-inferior relationship. Instructions are given by the master directly to his inferiors.
vi. Superior at each position makes opinions within the compass of his authority. 1. There are experts known as staff to advise and help the line officers. 2. Line authority and staff people with premonitory authority.
3. lower discipline.
4. It’s grounded upon planned specialization.
5. Unity of command observed to a great extent.
6. Suitable for medium scale operations.
7. Little premium. Functional directors are specialists in their separate areas.
The line of authority is functional or slant. The functional director has authority over the functions wherever it’s performed. further discipline.
Grounded on high degree of specialization. Unity of command isn’t followed as eachsub-ordinate gets instructions from his line master and the functional heads. It’s suitable for large scale operations where expert knowledge in certain fields is a must. veritably expensive.
Advantages Facilitates to work briskly and more.
ii. Officers can take sound advice.
iii. Promotes effective functioning of line officers. Disadvantages
i. There may be confusion about the relation between staff and line workers.
ii. If power aren’t defined also get confusion. iii. Line officers may reject advice without any reason for their action.
iv. Line officers condemn staff officers for inimical results and want to get prices for favorable results.