Monitoring Updating and Management System in Construction Unit 3 Part 1

Que3.1. bandy  design life cycle and performance  objects. 

Answer  Project Life Cycle All  systems can be counterplotted to the following simple  life cycle structure  Starting the  design organizing and preparing carrying out the  work closing the  design.  Following are the four phases of  design life cycle 

1. inauguration Phase 

i. During the  inauguration phase, the  design  ideal or need is  linked. 

ii. An applicable response to the need is  proved in a business case  with recommended  result options. 

iii. A feasibility study is conducted to  probe whether each option  addresses the  design  ideal and a final recommended  result is  determined. 

2. Planning Phase 

i. In the planning phase,  design  result is further developed in as  important  detail as possible and the  way necessary to meet the  design’s  ideal  are planned. 

ii. In this step, the  platoon identifies all of the work to be done. The  design’s  tasks and resource conditions are  linked, along with the strategy  for producing them.

iii. A  design plan is created outlining the conditioning, tasks, dependences ,  and timeframes. 

iv. The  design  director coordinates the medication of a  design budget by   furnishing cost estimates for the labor,  outfit, and accoutrements  costs.  The budget is used to cover and control cost expenditures during   design  perpetration. 

3. perpetration( prosecution) Phase 

i. In this phase, the  design plan is put into  stir and the work of the   design is performed. 

ii. Progress is continuously covered and applicable  adaptations are  made and recorded as  dissonances from the original plan. 

iii. The  design  director uses this information to maintain control over the  direction of the  design by comparing the progress reports with the   design plan to measure the performance of the  design conditioning and  take corrective action as  demanded. 

4. ending Phase During the final  check, or completion phase, the  emphasis is on releasing the final deliverables to the  client, handing  over  design attestation to the business, terminating supplier  contracts, releasing  design  coffers, and communicating the  check  of the  design to all stakeholders. 

Performance objects Following are the  colorful performance   objects 

1. Quality Quality is a measure of excellence or a state of being free  from  blights,  scarcities, and significant variations. 

2. Speed How  snappily does  product take and how  snappily can it  respond to changes in demand. 

3. responsibility How  invariant,  harmonious and  dependable a business  products are. 

4. Inflexibility How  snappily operations processes can acclimate to changes in  the  request. 

5. Customization Refers to creation of  personalized products to meet  the specific  requirements of  guests. 

6. Cost Minimization of charges so that the operations function can be  completed as cheaply as possible. 

Que3.2. Define association and explain its types. 

OR  What are the different types of organizational structures? figure  in detail the characteristics, advantages and disadvantages of each  structure. 

Answer  Organization  Organization is the methodical  arrangement of people working together  towards a common purpose. 

ii. It’s composed of a group of  individualities acting as a unit for the attainment  of an  ideal.  Types of Organization Following are the  colorful types of  association 

1. Line Organization 

i. Under line association, each department is generally a complete selfcontained  unit. A separate person will look after the conditioning of the  department and he has full control over the department. 

ii. The same  position  directors don’t give or admit orders amongst  themselves. But they admit orders from their immediate  master and  give orders to their inferiors. 

Characteristics of Line Organization 

i. It consists of direct  perpendicular  connections. 

ii. Authority flows from top-  position to  nethermost  position. 

iii. Departmental heads are given full freedom to control their departments. 

iv. A  elderly member has direct command over his inferiors.  Actuality of direct relationship between  elders and inferiors. 

vi. The superior takes  opinions within the  compass of his authority. 


It’s simple in form with a clear cut division of authority. 

ii. The  opinions are speedy and their  perpetration is quick. 

iii. It promotes lesser collaboration and keeps better discipline. 

iv. The responsibility can be  fluently fixed.

v. further  provident and flexible. 


Lack of specification and action. 

ii. Overloading. 

iii. Limited communication and  private approach. 

2. Functional Organization

 i. Under functional association, colorful specialists are for colorful  functions performed in an association. 

ii. These specialists will attend to the work which is common to different  functions of  colorful departments. 

iii. Workers, under functional association, admit instructions from colorful specialists.  Characteristics of Functional Organization 

i. The work is divided according to specified functions. 

ii. Authority is given to a specialist to give orders and instructions in  relation to specific function. 

iii. Functional authority has right and power to give command throughout  the line with reference to his specified area.  Advantage of Functional Organisation Efficiency Greater  effectiveness is achieved because of every function  performing a limited number of functions. 

ii. Economy Specialization collected with standardization facilitates  maximum  product and  provident costs. 

iii. Expansion Expert knowledge of functional  director facilitates better  control and supervision.  Disadvantages of Functional Organisation  It’s  delicate to define who the ‘  master ’ is. 

ii. Itde-emphasizes the position of the line association. 

iii. adding the outflow charges. 

3. Line and Staff Organization 

i. The line officers have authority to take  opinions and  apply them  to achieve the  objects of the association. 

ii. The line officers may be  supported by the staff officers while framing the   programs and plans and taking  opinions association. 

iii. The authority flows from top  position to the lower  position of the association  through the line officers while the staff officers attached to the  colorful  departments advise the departments.  Characteristics of Line and Staff Organization. 

i. It consists of direct  perpendicular  connections.  ii. Departmental head is given full freedom to manage his department.  iii. It doesn’t make provision for staff specialists. 

iv. Actuality of superior-inferior relationship.  Instructions are given by the  master directly to his inferiors. 

vi. Superior at each  position makes  opinions within the  compass of his authority.  1. There are experts known as  staff to advise and  help the  line  officers.  2. Line authority and staff  people with premonitory  authority. 

3. lower discipline. 

4. It’s grounded upon planned  specialization. 

5. Unity of command observed  to a great extent. 

6. Suitable for medium scale  operations. 

7. Little  premium.  Functional  directors are specialists  in their  separate areas. 

The line of authority is functional  or  slant. The functional   director has authority over the  functions wherever it’s performed.  further discipline. 

Grounded on high degree of  specialization.  Unity of command isn’t followed  as eachsub-ordinate gets  instructions from his line  master and  the functional  heads.  It’s suitable for large scale  operations where expert  knowledge in certain fields is a  must.  veritably  expensive. 

Advantages  Facilitates to work  briskly and more. 

ii. Officers can take sound advice. 

iii. Promotes effective functioning of line officers.  Disadvantages 

i. There may be confusion about the relation between staff and line   workers. 

ii. If power aren’t defined  also get confusion.  iii. Line officers may reject advice without any reason for their action. 

iv. Line officers  condemn staff officers for  inimical results and want to  get  prices for favorable results.

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