Legal Aspect of Contracts Unit 2 Part 3

Que2.15. Write general specification of 1st class  structure. 

Answer  Following are the general specification of first class  structure 

1. Foundation and Plinth Foundation and plinth shall be of 1st class  brickwork in lime mortar or 1 6 cement mortar over lime concrete or  1 4 8 cement concrete. 

2. Damp Proof Course DPC shall be2.5 cm thick cement concrete  1 1 1  2 3, mixed with one kg of Impermo per bag of cement or other  standard water proofing accoutrements  as specified and painted with two  fleeces of bitumen. 

3. Superstructure Superstructure shall be of 1st class brickwork with  lime mortar or 16 cement mortar. Lintels over doors and windows  shall be of RCC. 

4. Roofing  Roof shall be of RCC arbor with an  sequestration subcaste and lime concrete  terracing  over, supported over RS Joists or RCC  shafts as  needed. 

ii. Height of apartments shall not be  lower than3.7 m( 12  bases). 

5. Flooring  Drawing room and dining room  bottoms shall be of mosaic( terrazo). 

ii. restroom and WC  bottoms and dado shall be of mosaic( terrazo). 

iii. bottoms of bedrooms shall be coloured and polished of2.5 cm cement  concrete over7.5 cm lime concrete. 

6. Finishing  Inside and outside walls shall be of 12 mm cement lime plastered 1 6. 

ii. Drawing, dining and bedrooms outside shall be distempered, and  others — outside washed 3 fleeces. 

iii. Outside shall be coloured snowcem washed two fleeces over one fleece of  white  marshland.

 7. Doors and windows Chaukhats shall be seasoned teak wood.  Shutters shall be teak wood4.3 cm thick panelled glazed or  incompletely  panelled and  incompletely glazed as  needed, with  fresh  line hand  shutters. 

8. eclectic  Rain water pipes of cast iron or of asbestos cement shall be  handed  and finished painted. 

ii. structure shall be  handed with first class aseptic and water fittings  and electrical installations. 

Que2.16. Write general specification for a alternate class  structure. 

Answer  Following are the general specification of alternate class  structures  

1. Foundation and Plinth Foundation and plinth shall be of 1st class  brickwork with lime mortar over lime concrete. 

2. Damp Proof Course DPC shall be of 2 cm thick cement concrete  1 2 mixed with 1 kg of Impermo per bag of cement or other standard  water proofing accoutrements . 

3. Superstructure Superstructure shall be of 2nd class brickwork in  lime mortar. Lintels over doors and windows shall be of  corroborated slipup( RB). 

4. Roofing  Roof shall be RB arbor with7.5 cm lime concrete terracing  over( or  chapeau  terraced roof supported over  rustic  battens and  shafts, or Jack  bow  roof). 

ii. Verandah roof may be of asbestos cement( AC)  distance or Allahabad  penstocks. 

5. Flooring bottoms shall be2.5 cm cement concrete over7.5 cm LC.  Verandah  bottom shall be of  slipup pipe or flag gravestone over lime concrete,  finished cement painted. 

6. Finishing  Inside and outside walls shall be of 12 mm cement mortar plastered  16. 

ii. Ceiling shall be cement plastered


 iii. Inside shall be white washed

3 fleeces, colour washed two fleeces over one  fleece of white  marshland. 

7. Doors and Windows  Chaukhat shall be of RCC or well seasoned wood, shutters of shisham  wood or deodar wood 4 cm thick, panelled, glazed or  incompletely panelled  and  incompletely glazed as  needed, fitted with iron fittings.

 ii. Doors and windows shall be painted two fleeces over one fleece of priming. 

8. eclectic  Rain water pipes shall be of cast iron finished painted. 

ii. Electrification, and aseptic and water fittings may be  handed if   needed.  

Que2.17. Explain the legal aspects of contracts and  colorful laws.

Answer  Legal Aspects  Construction work on  design takes on land. For a contract to be  fairly  valid the construction  design must fit into the legal  frame governing  the property.

 ii. These include government regulations on the use of property and  obligation that are created in the process of construction. 

iii. Since a contract is an exchange set of  scores between two or  further  parties, it must be designed to  insure that each side is able of  performing the obligation set out.  Following are the main conditions of a valid contract so that it may be legal list on both/ all the involved parties. 

1. fairly Competent Parties 

i. As per Indian Contract Act, the parties entering into contract should be   fairly competent. 

ii. Anyone who’s of the age of  maturity and is of sound mind can enter into  a contract. 

iii. Inferior authority who has not been directed or authorised can not  be involved in  subscribing any contract. 

2. Free concurrence of Parties 

i. It means concurring of two minds in respect of the same opinion, purpose  or understanding as regards the course to be pursued. 

ii. Contract is said to be free  concurrence when 

a. It isn’t caused under any influence. 

b. It isn’t caused by mistake. 

c. It isn’t caused by misrepresentation. 

d. It isn’t caused by fraud. 

e. It isn’t caused under  constraint. 

3. Proper and Valid Consideration  fairly, valid consideration is  nominated as the act or a  pledge to do   commodity by a party in return of  plutocrat or  pledge or  entitlement of some  interests by other party.

ii. The consideration may not be acceptable or a full return of the  pledge,  but it must be  element, real and shouldn’t be illegal,  nebulous,   insolvable or uncertain. 

4. Meaningful Contract in Writing and inked by Both Parties  Meaning of agreement should be certain or able of being made certain. 

ii. According to the law, the contract must be  inked by the authorised  persons of both the parties. 

iii. In case of public bodies, an  sanctioned  properly authorised for this purpose signs  the contract fixing the seal of the public body on the agreement. 

5. colorful Laws 

i. The Law of Contracts is the base of business law because the bulk of  deals of the people engaged in trade, commerce and assiduity are  grounded on contracts. 

ii. In India, the Law of Contracts is contained in the Indian Contract Act, . 

iii. Though the Partnership Act, the trade of Goods Act; the Negotiable  Instruments Act, the Companies Act, technically belong to the Law of  Contracts yet they’ve been covered by separate enactments. 

iv. still, the general principles of the Contract Law are the base for all   similar contracts as well.  The main features of the Law of Contracts are  a. The parties to the contract make the law for themselves. 

b. The Act isn’t  total since, it doesn’t take into its horizon all the  applicable legislations.  c. It doesn’t stamp customs or  exercises. 

Que2.18. Write short notes on land accession in India. 

Answer  Land Acquisition It refers to the process by which the union or a  state government in India acquires private land for the purpose of  industrialization, development of  structure facilitates or  urbanization of the private land and provides compensation to the  affected land  possessors and their  recuperation and resettlement.  Following are the two bases of land acquired in India 

1. Permanent Land Land is to be acquired permanently for the  anticipated life of the  design.  For  illustration, consider the case of laying a new channel. Land is acquired  permanently along the channel route and the  installation  spots  similar as  pump stations, metering stations, block  stopcock station, anode ground  beds, power line pylons,etc. 

2. Temporary Land 

i. All areas which are  demanded in addition to the permanently acquire land  in order to carry out the construction and installation of the channels  system and associated  installations are acquired on temporary base. 

ii. This includes contractor camp,  storehouse yards and other  supplementary areas   demanded for the  storehouse of  outfit and accoutrements.  The indigenous Framework  “ The Land Acquisition Act, 1894 ”. 

Land can be acquired either by State or the Central government for  the purpose listed under State and Centre list independently unless the  Central government delegates the task to the state government under  composition 258( 1) of constitution. 

ii. Composition 31( 2) categorically states that a land can be acquired by the  state only for the public purpose. 

iii. In every case, land accession must take place in a manner that completely  protects the interests of land  proprietor and also of those whose livelihood  depends on the land being acquired.

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