Que2.15. Write general specification of 1st class structure.
Answer Following are the general specification of first class structure
1. Foundation and Plinth Foundation and plinth shall be of 1st class brickwork in lime mortar or 1 6 cement mortar over lime concrete or 1 4 8 cement concrete.
2. Damp Proof Course DPC shall be2.5 cm thick cement concrete 1 1 1 2 3, mixed with one kg of Impermo per bag of cement or other standard water proofing accoutrements as specified and painted with two fleeces of bitumen.
3. Superstructure Superstructure shall be of 1st class brickwork with lime mortar or 16 cement mortar. Lintels over doors and windows shall be of RCC.
4. Roofing Roof shall be of RCC arbor with an sequestration subcaste and lime concrete terracing over, supported over RS Joists or RCC shafts as needed.
ii. Height of apartments shall not be lower than3.7 m( 12 bases).
5. Flooring Drawing room and dining room bottoms shall be of mosaic( terrazo).
ii. restroom and WC bottoms and dado shall be of mosaic( terrazo).
iii. bottoms of bedrooms shall be coloured and polished of2.5 cm cement concrete over7.5 cm lime concrete.
6. Finishing Inside and outside walls shall be of 12 mm cement lime plastered 1 6.
ii. Drawing, dining and bedrooms outside shall be distempered, and others — outside washed 3 fleeces.
iii. Outside shall be coloured snowcem washed two fleeces over one fleece of white marshland.
7. Doors and windows Chaukhats shall be seasoned teak wood. Shutters shall be teak wood4.3 cm thick panelled glazed or incompletely panelled and incompletely glazed as needed, with fresh line hand shutters.
8. eclectic Rain water pipes of cast iron or of asbestos cement shall be handed and finished painted.
ii. structure shall be handed with first class aseptic and water fittings and electrical installations.
Que2.16. Write general specification for a alternate class structure.
Answer Following are the general specification of alternate class structures
1. Foundation and Plinth Foundation and plinth shall be of 1st class brickwork with lime mortar over lime concrete.
2. Damp Proof Course DPC shall be of 2 cm thick cement concrete 1 2 mixed with 1 kg of Impermo per bag of cement or other standard water proofing accoutrements .
3. Superstructure Superstructure shall be of 2nd class brickwork in lime mortar. Lintels over doors and windows shall be of corroborated slipup( RB).
4. Roofing Roof shall be RB arbor with7.5 cm lime concrete terracing over( or chapeau terraced roof supported over rustic battens and shafts, or Jack bow roof).
ii. Verandah roof may be of asbestos cement( AC) distance or Allahabad penstocks.
5. Flooring bottoms shall be2.5 cm cement concrete over7.5 cm LC. Verandah bottom shall be of slipup pipe or flag gravestone over lime concrete, finished cement painted.
6. Finishing Inside and outside walls shall be of 12 mm cement mortar plastered 16.
ii. Ceiling shall be cement plastered
iii. Inside shall be white washed
3 fleeces, colour washed two fleeces over one fleece of white marshland.
7. Doors and Windows Chaukhat shall be of RCC or well seasoned wood, shutters of shisham wood or deodar wood 4 cm thick, panelled, glazed or incompletely panelled and incompletely glazed as needed, fitted with iron fittings.
ii. Doors and windows shall be painted two fleeces over one fleece of priming.
8. eclectic Rain water pipes shall be of cast iron finished painted.
ii. Electrification, and aseptic and water fittings may be handed if needed.
Que2.17. Explain the legal aspects of contracts and colorful laws.
Answer Legal Aspects Construction work on design takes on land. For a contract to be fairly valid the construction design must fit into the legal frame governing the property.
ii. These include government regulations on the use of property and obligation that are created in the process of construction.
iii. Since a contract is an exchange set of scores between two or further parties, it must be designed to insure that each side is able of performing the obligation set out. Following are the main conditions of a valid contract so that it may be legal list on both/ all the involved parties.
1. fairly Competent Parties
i. As per Indian Contract Act, the parties entering into contract should be fairly competent.
ii. Anyone who’s of the age of maturity and is of sound mind can enter into a contract.
iii. Inferior authority who has not been directed or authorised can not be involved in subscribing any contract.
2. Free concurrence of Parties
i. It means concurring of two minds in respect of the same opinion, purpose or understanding as regards the course to be pursued.
ii. Contract is said to be free concurrence when
a. It isn’t caused under any influence.
b. It isn’t caused by mistake.
c. It isn’t caused by misrepresentation.
d. It isn’t caused by fraud.
e. It isn’t caused under constraint.
3. Proper and Valid Consideration fairly, valid consideration is nominated as the act or a pledge to do commodity by a party in return of plutocrat or pledge or entitlement of some interests by other party.
ii. The consideration may not be acceptable or a full return of the pledge, but it must be element, real and shouldn’t be illegal, nebulous, insolvable or uncertain.
4. Meaningful Contract in Writing and inked by Both Parties Meaning of agreement should be certain or able of being made certain.
ii. According to the law, the contract must be inked by the authorised persons of both the parties.
iii. In case of public bodies, an sanctioned properly authorised for this purpose signs the contract fixing the seal of the public body on the agreement.
5. colorful Laws
i. The Law of Contracts is the base of business law because the bulk of deals of the people engaged in trade, commerce and assiduity are grounded on contracts.
ii. In India, the Law of Contracts is contained in the Indian Contract Act, .
iii. Though the Partnership Act, the trade of Goods Act; the Negotiable Instruments Act, the Companies Act, technically belong to the Law of Contracts yet they’ve been covered by separate enactments.
iv. still, the general principles of the Contract Law are the base for all similar contracts as well. The main features of the Law of Contracts are a. The parties to the contract make the law for themselves.
b. The Act isn’t total since, it doesn’t take into its horizon all the applicable legislations. c. It doesn’t stamp customs or exercises.
Que2.18. Write short notes on land accession in India.
Answer Land Acquisition It refers to the process by which the union or a state government in India acquires private land for the purpose of industrialization, development of structure facilitates or urbanization of the private land and provides compensation to the affected land possessors and their recuperation and resettlement. Following are the two bases of land acquired in India
1. Permanent Land Land is to be acquired permanently for the anticipated life of the design. For illustration, consider the case of laying a new channel. Land is acquired permanently along the channel route and the installation spots similar as pump stations, metering stations, block stopcock station, anode ground beds, power line pylons,etc.
2. Temporary Land
i. All areas which are demanded in addition to the permanently acquire land in order to carry out the construction and installation of the channels system and associated installations are acquired on temporary base.
ii. This includes contractor camp, storehouse yards and other supplementary areas demanded for the storehouse of outfit and accoutrements. The indigenous Framework “ The Land Acquisition Act, 1894 ”.
Land can be acquired either by State or the Central government for the purpose listed under State and Centre list independently unless the Central government delegates the task to the state government under composition 258( 1) of constitution.
ii. Composition 31( 2) categorically states that a land can be acquired by the state only for the public purpose.
iii. In every case, land accession must take place in a manner that completely protects the interests of land proprietor and also of those whose livelihood depends on the land being acquired.