Que4.14. What’s Electronic Governance(E-Governance)? What are the objects ofE-Governance? Answer 1. E-Governance is the integration of Information and Communication Technology( ICT) in all the processes, with the end of enhancing government capability to address the requirements of the general public. 2. The introductory purpose ofe-governance is to simplify processes for all, i.e. government, citizens, businesses,etc. at public, state and original situations. 3. It makes the whole executive process accessible, effective, transparent, completely responsible and responsible. 4. E-Governance is a current necessity in a country like India, both in Government and commercial sector. 5. Some successful perpetration ofE-Governance to the governmental function include systems likee-Mitra design( Rajasthan),e-Seva design( Andhra Pradesh), CET( Common Entrance Test). objects ofE-Governance 1. Better service delivery to citizens. 2. steering in translucency and responsibility. 3. Empowering people through information. 4. Ameliorate effectiveness within Government i.e., between centre- state orinter-states. 5. Ameliorate interface with business and assiduity. Que4.15. What are the advantages and disadvantages of EGovernance? Answer Advantages ofE-Governance 1. Speed Technology makes communication dizzy. Internet, smartphones have enables instant transmission of high volumes of data. 2. Saving Costs A lot the Government expenditure goes towards the cost of buying stationery for sanctioned purposes. Letters and written records consume a lot of stationery. still, replacing them with smartphones and the internet can saves lots of plutocrat in charges every time. 3. translucency The use ofe-governance helps make all functions of the business transparent. All Governmental information can be uploaded onto the internet. The citizen’s access specifically access whichever information they want, whenever they want it. 4. Responsibility translucency directly links to responsibility. Once the functions of the government are available, we can hold them responsible for their conduct. Disadvantages ofE-Governance 1. High Setup Cost and Specialized Difficulties The setup cost is veritably high and the machines have to be regularly maintained. frequently, computers and internet can also break down and put a dent in governmental work and services. 2. Ignorance A large number of people in India are illiterate and don’t know how to operate computers and smartphones. E-governance is veritably delicate for them to pierce and understand. 3. Cybercrime/ Leakage of Personal Information There’s always the threat of private data of citizens stored in government serves being stolen. Cybercrime is a serious issue; a breach of data can make the public lose confidence in the Government’s capability to govern the people. Que4.16. What are Secure Electronic Records and Digital Autographs? Answer 1. Secure Electronic Record Section 14 lays down that,’ where any security procedure has been applied to an electronic record at a specific point of time, also similar Intellectual Property Laws 4 – 14 P( NCC- Sem- 5 & 6) record shall be supposed to be a secure electronic record from similar point of time to the time of verification’. 2. Secure Electronic hand( Digital hand) Section 15 lays down that an electronic hand shall be supposed to be a secure electronic hand if i. The hand creation data, at the time of bending hand, was under the exclusive control of signatory and no other person; and ii. The hand creation data was stored and fixed in similar exclusive manner as may be specified( Note In case of digital hand, the “ hand creation data ” means the private key of the subscriber.) Que4.17. What’s a Digital hand Certificate? What are different types of Digital hand instruments? Answer 1. Digital hand instruments( DSC) are the digital fellow( electronic format) of physical or paper instruments. 2. A digital instrument can be presented electronically to prove one’s identity, to pierce information or services on the Internet or to subscribe certain documents digitally. The different types of Digital hand instruments areA. Class 2 Digital hand Certificate 1. The main function of this instrument is to authenticate the details of the signer. 2. Itre-affirms the formerly mentioned data of the stoner. 3. It’s used in colorful form- stuffing, online enrollment , dispatch documentation, income duty form and etc.B. Class 3 Digital hand Certificate 1. This is the safest of all instruments. It’s used in matters of high security and safety. 2. It’s substantially used in online trading ande-commerce, where a huge quantum of plutocrat or largely nonpublic information is involved. Que4.18. Write a short note on Cyber Regulations Appellate Tribunal. Answer 1. Cyber Appellate Tribunal has been established under the Information Technology Act under the aegis of Controller of Certifying Authorities(C.C.A.) 2. It has the statutory authority to examine the correctness, legitimacy or propriety of the decision or order passed. 3. Qualifications for appointment as Presiding Officer of the Cyber Appellate Tribunal A person is considered good for the appointment as the Presiding Officer of a Tribunal if a. He has the qualification of the Judge of a High Court.b. He’s or was the member of the Indian Legal Service and holds or has held a post in Grade I of that service for at least three times. 4. The Term of Office The Term of Office of the Presiding Officer of a Cyber Appellate Tribunal is five times from the date of entering the office or until he attains the age of 65 times, whichever is before. 5. Abdication and junking i. The Presiding Officer can abdicate from his office after submitting a notice in writing to the Central Government, handed a. He holds office until the expiry of three months from the date the Central Government receives similar notice, OR b. He holds office till the appointment of a successor, ORc. Until the expiry of his office; whichever is before. ii. In case of proven misbehaviour or incapability, the Central Government can pass an order to remove the Presiding Officer of the Cyber Appellate Tribunal. 6. Powers of Cyber Appellate Tribunal i. The Cyber Appellate Tribunal shall have powers to regulate its own procedure including the place at which it shall have its sittings. ii. The Cyber Appellate Tribunal shall have, for the purposes of discharging its functions under this Act, the same powers as are vested in a civil court under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908. iii. The Cyber Appellate Tribunal shall have powers ofa. Summoning and administering the attendance of any person and examining him on pledge; taking the discovery and product of documents or other electronic records;c. entering substantiation on affidavits;d. Issuing commissions for the examination of substantiations or documents;e. Reviewing its opinions;f. Dismissing an operation for dereliction or deciding it ex parte;g. Any other matter, which may be specified. Que4.19. What are the limitations failings of the Information Technology Act, 2000? Answer Limitations failings of the Information Technology Act, 2000 1. The Information Technology Act has been successful in setting down the frame of regulations in Cyber Space and addresses a many pressing enterprises of abuse of technology. 2. still there are many serious gaps in the Act that haven’t been bandied. 3. numerous experts argues that the Act is toothless legislation which has not been fully effective in issuing penalties or warrants against perpetrators who choose to misuse the reach of cyberspace. 4. Following are certain areas of cyber laws which need attentionA. Spamming 1. A spam is an unasked bulke-mail. originally, it was viewed as a bare nuisance but now it’s posing major profitable problems. 2. The Information Technology Act doesn’t bandy the issue of spamming at all. 3. The USA and the European Union have legislatedanti-spam legislation.B. Phishing 1. Phishing is the criminally fraudulent process of acquiring sensitive information similar as usernames, watchwords, and credit card details, by pretending as a secure reality in electronic communication. 2. There’s no law against phishing in the Information Technology Act through the Indian Penal Code talks about cheating, it isn’t sufficient to check the exertion of phishing.C. Data Protection in Internet Banking 1. Data protection laws primarily aim to guard the interest of the individual whose data is handled and reused by others. 2. India has no law on data protection. 3. The Information Technology Act talks about unauthorized access but it doesn’t talk about maintaining the integrity of client deals.D. sequestration Protection 1. sequestration and data protection are important issues that need to be addressed moment as information technology assumes lesser significance in particular, professional and marketable spheres. 2. The absence of a specific sequestration law in India has redounded in a loss of substantial foreign investment and other business openings.E. Identity Theft 1. Identity theft worldwide is a growing problem. IT act 2000 fails to address this issue.F. Cyber War 1. The issue of Cyber War has also not been bandied in the Act.