Que1.21. Compactly describe the six abecedarian rights of Indian Constitution. AnswerA. Right to Equality 1. The indigenous papers related to right to equivalency are mentioned in Articles 14- 18. 2. It guarantees equal rights for everyone, irrespective of religion, gender, estate, race or place of birth. 3. It ensures equal employment openings in the government and insures against demarcation by the State in matters of employment on the base of estate, religion,etc. 4. It also includes the invalidation of titles as well as untouchability. B. Right to Freedom 1. The indigenous papers related to right to freedom are mentioned in Articles 19- 22. 2. Freedom is the most important ideals of any popular society. The Indian Constitution guarantees freedom to citizens. 3. The freedom right includes numerous rights similar asi. Freedom of speech ii. Freedom of expression iii. Freedom of assembly without arms iv. Freedom of associationv. Freedom to exercise any profession vi. Freedom to live in any part of the country 4. Some of these rights are subject to certain conditions of state security, public morality,etc. 5. The State also has the right to put reasonable restrictions on them.C. Right against exploitation 1. The indigenous papers related to right against exploitation are mentioned in Articles 23- 24. 2. This right implies the prohibition of business in mortal beings, begar, and other forms of forced labour. 3. It also implies the prohibition of children in manufactories,etc. 4. The Constitution prohibits the employment of children lower than 14 times in dangerous conditions.D. Right to Freedom of Religion 1. The indigenous papers related to right to freedom of religion are mentioned in Articles 25- 28. 2. Every person has the right to freely exercise his or her faith, establish and maintain religious and charitable institutions. 3. This indicates the temporal nature of Indian polity. There’s equal respect given to all persuasions. 4. There’s freedom of heart, profession, practice and propagation of religion. The State has no sanctioned religion.E. Cultural and Educational Rights 1. The indigenous papers related to artistic and educational rights are mentioned in Articles 29- 30. 2. These rights cover the rights of religious, artistic and verbal nonages, by easing them to save their heritage and culture. 3. Educational rights are for icing education for everyone without any demarcation.F. Right to indigenous Remedies 1. The indigenous papers related to right to indigenous remedies are mentioned in Articles 32. 2. The Constitution guarantees remedies if citizens’ abecedarian rights are violated. 3. The government can not infringe upon or check anyone’s rights. 4. When these rights are violated, the displeased party can approach the courts. Que1.22. What are the features of Fundamental Rights? Answer Features of Fundamental Rights 1. Abecedarian rights are different from ordinary legal rights If a legal right is violated, the displeased person can not directly approach the Supreme Court bypassing the lower courts. He or she should first approach the lower courts. 2. Abecedarian rights aren’t absolute rights Abecedarian rights are subject to the conditions of state security, public morality and decency and friendly relations with foreign countries. 3. They’re justiciable( enforceable by courts) People can approach the Supreme Court directly in case of violation of abecedarian rights. 4. Abecedarian rights can be amended by the Parliament by a indigenous correction but only if the correction doesn’t alter the introductory structure of the Constitution. 5. Abecedarian rights can be suspended during a public exigency. 6. The operation of abecedarian rights can be confined in an area which has been placed under martial law or military rule. Que1.23. What are the abecedarian rights that are available to Indian citizens? Also give significance of abecedarian rights. Answer Following are the abecedarian rights that are available only to Indian citizens 1. Prohibition of demarcation on grounds of race, religion, estate, gender or place of birth. 2. Equality of occasion in matters of public employment. 3. Protection of Freedom ofi. Speech and expression ii. Association iii. Assembly iv. Movementv. Residence vi. Profession 4. Protection of the culture, language and script of nonages. 5. Right of nonages to establish and administer educational institutions. significance of Fundamental Rights 1. Abecedarian rights are veritably important because they form the backbone of the country. They’re essential for securing the people’s interests. 2. According to Composition 13, all laws, bills, orders, regulations, announcements, etc; that are violative of abecedarian rights shall be void. 3. The Supreme Court and the High Courts can declare any law unconstitutional on the grounds that it’s violative of the abecedarian rights. Que1.24. Write a short note on abecedarian duties in India. Answer i. The Abecedarian Duties of citizens were added to the Constitution by the 42nd Amendment in 1976, upon the recommendations of the Swaran Singh Committee. ii. The Committee suggested that way demanded to be taken to insure that the existent didn’t overlook his duties while in exercise of his Fundamental Rights. iii. The Abecedarian duties are basically taken from the Indian tradition, tradition, persuasions and practices. iv. Basically these were the duties that are the codification of tasks integral to the Indian way of life. v. The list of 11 Abecedarian Duties to be adhered by every Indian citizen is given below 1. To abide by the Constitution and admire its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem; 2. To cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our public struggle for freedom; 3. To uphold and cover the sovereignty, concinnity and integrity of India; 4. To defend the country and render public service when called upon to do so; 5. To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, verbal and indigenous or sectional diversities; to renounce practices depreciatory to the quality of women; 6. To value and save the rich heritage of our compound culture; 7. To cover and ameliorate the natural terrain including timbers, lakes, gutters and wild life, and to have compassion for living brutes; 8. To develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform 9. To guard public property and to abjure violence; 10. To strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collaborative exertion so that the nation constantly rises to advanced situations of bid and achievement; 11. give openings for education to his child or ward between the age of six and fourteen times. Que1.25. Why are Abecedarian Duties important? Answer Abecedarian Duties are an inalienable part of abecedarian rights. The significance of these is given below 1. They remind Indian Citizens of their duty towards their society, fellow citizens and the nation. 2. They advise citizens againstanti-national andanti-social conditioning. 3. They inspire citizens & promote a sense of discipline and commitment among them. 4. They help the courts in examining and determining the indigenous validity of a law. 5. They’re enforceable by law. Que1.26. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy Answer 1. In 1945 the Sapru Committee suggested two orders of individual rights. 2. One being justiciable( Abecedarian Rights) and the other being nonjusticiable( Directive Principles of State Policy) rights. 3. Directive Principles of State Policy are ideals which are meant to be kept in mind by the state when it formulates programs and enacts laws. 4. Following are colorful delineations to Directive Principles of Statei. Directive Principles of State Policy’s are ideals which aren’t fairly enforceable by the courts for their violation. ii. They seek to establish profitable and social republic in the country. iii. They’re an ‘ instrument of instructions ’ which are enumerated in the Government of India Act, 1935. Que1.27. Explain Directive Principles of State Policy on the base of Socialistic Principles. Answer 1. They’re the principles that aim at furnishing social and profitable justice and set the path towards the weal state. 2. Under following papers, they direct the state to 3. Composition 38 Promote the weal of the people by securing a social order through justice and to minimise inequalities in income, status, installations and openings. 4. Composition 39i. Secure right to acceptable means of livelihood for all citizens. ii. Secure indifferent distribution of material coffers of the community for the common good. iii. Prevention of attention of wealth and means of product. iv. Secure equal pay for equal work for men and women.v. Preservation of the health and strength of workers and children against forcible abuse. vi. Secure openings for the healthy development of children. 5. Composition 39A Promote equal justice and free legal aid to the poor. 6. Composition 41 In cases of severance, old age, sickness and disablement, secure citizens Right to work. ii. Right to education. iii. Right to public backing. 7. Composition 42 Make provision for just and humane conditions of work and motherliness relief. 8. Composition 43 Secure a living pay envelope, a decent standard of living and social and artistic openings for all workers. 9. Composition 43A Take way to secure the participation of workers in the operation of diligence. 10. Composition 47 Raise the position of nutrition and the standard of living of people and to ameliorate public health.