COI Unit-1 Part-2 Basic Information about Indian Constitution

Que1.10. Explain in brief objective resolution. Answer The Objective Resolution was moved on December 13, 1946 by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, which handed the gospel and guiding principles for framing the Constitution. It latterly took the form of Preamble of the Constitution of India. This Resolution was unanimously espoused by the Constituent Assembly on 22 January 1947. Que1.11. Write a short note on Drafting Committee. Among all the panels of the Constituent Assembly, the most significant was the Drafting Committee set up on August 29, 1947. It was this commission that was entrusted with the task of preparing a draft of the new Constitution. It comported of seven members. They were Dr.B.R. Ambedkar( Chairman) ii.N. Gopalswami Ayyangar iii. Alladi Krishnaswami Ayyar iv.K.M. Munshi Mohammed Sadullah vi.B.L. Mittar( replaced byN. Madhav Rao) vii.D.P. Khaitan( who failed in 1948 and was replaced byT.T. Krishnamachari) The Drafting Committee, after taking into consideration the proffers of the colorful panels, prepared the first draft of the Constitution of India, which was published in February 1948. The people of India were given 8 months to bandy the draft and propose emendations. In the light of the public commentary, examens and suggestions, the Drafting Committee prepared a alternate draft, which was published in October 1948. Que1.12. unfold Government of India Act of 1935. Answer The Government of India Act was passed by the British Parliament in August 1935. It was the longest act legislated by the British Parliament at that time. So, it was divided into two separate acts videlicet, the Government of India Act 1935 and the Government of Burma Act 1935. The Government of India Act 1935 deduced material from four crucial sourcesviz. Report of the Simon Commission, conversations at the Third Round Table Conference, the White Paper of 1933 and the reports of the common select panels. This act ended the system of dyarchy introduced by Government of India Act, 1919. It handed for establishment of a confederation of India to be made up of businesses of British India and some or all of the Kingly countries. still, the confederation noway came into being as the needed number of kingly countries didn’t join it. Que1.13. Explain salient features of Government of India Act of 1935. Answer Salient Features of the Government of India Act 1935 were as follows invalidation of parochial dyarchy and preface of dyarchy at centre. invalidation of Indian Council and preface of an premonitory body in its place. 3. Provision for an All India Federation with British India homes and kingly countries. 4. Elaborate safeguards and defensive instruments for nonages. 5. Supremacy of British Parliament. 6. Increase in size of houses, extension of ballot, division of subjects into three lists and retention of collaborative electorate. 7. Separation of Burma from India. Que1.14. Describe Indian Independence Act of 1947. Answer 1. The Indian Independence Act, legislated and espoused by the British Parliament, receives royal assent on 18 July 1947. 2. The Indian Independence Act creates two new independent Dominions India( Hindu) and Pakistan( Muslim). 3. The businesses which were formerly administered directly by the British are attached to one or other of these two countries, depending on whether the maturity of the population is Hindu or Muslim. 4. The kingly countries are free to decide whether they belong to Pakistan or India. 5. India attained its independence on 15 August 1947. Que1.15. Explain salient features of Indian Independence Act of 1947. Answer Salient features 1. It handed for two dominion countries India and Pakistan. 2. The authority of the British Crown over the kingly countries desisted and they were free to join either India or Pakistan or remain independent. 3. The constituent assemblies of both the countries were free to make constitutions of their separate countries. 4. British Government would not continue any control on any dominion. 5. The Governor General was invested with acceptable powers until March 1948 to issue orders for effective perpetration of the vittles of the Indian Independence Act, of 1947. 6. Those civil retainers who had been appointed before the August 15, 1947, will continue in service with same boons. Que1.16. Describe in detail about Enforcement of the Constitution. Answer 1. The Constitution of India came into force on 26 January, 1950. On that day, the Assembly desisted to live, transubstantiating itself into the Provisional Parliament of India until a new Parliament was constituted in 1952. 2. The date of 26th January was chosen to commemorate the literal day as on this day in 1930 that Purna Swaraj day was celebrated and the tricolour flag of Indian independence was unfurled following the resolution of the Lahore Session( December 1929) of the Indian National Congress. 3. Some vittles of the Constitution pertaining to citizenship, choices, provisional congress, temporary and transitional vittles came into force on November 26, 1949 itself. 4. The remaining vittles( the major part) of the Constitution came into force on January 26, 1950. This day is appertained to in the Constitution as the’ date of its inception’ and celebrated as the Republic Day. 5. With the inception of the Constitution, the Indian Independence Act of 1947 and the Government of India Act of 1935, with all enactments amending or supplementing the ultimate Act, were repealed. The invalidation of Privy Council Jurisdiction Act( 1949) was still continued. Que1.17. What are the salient features of the Constitution? Answer The salient features are 1. A Written Constitution. 2. Lengthy Document. 3. Drawn from Different Sources. 4. A Federal Polity with a Unitary Bias. 5. Single Citizenship. 6. further Flexible than Rigid. 7. Democratic Republic. 8. Balance between Judicial Supremacy and Parliamentary Sovereignty. 9. Universal Adult Franchise. 10. temporal State. 11. Provision of Fundamental Rights. 12. Directive Principles for a Welfare State. 13. objectification of Abecedarian Duties. 14. exigency vittles. 15. Protection of nonages. 16. Provision for Autonomous Organisations. Que1.18. What’s a Preamble? Answer 1. A preamble is an introductory statement in a document that explains the document’s gospel and objects. 2. In a Constitution, it presents the intention of its framers, the history behind its creation, and the core values and principles of the nation. 3. The preamble principally gives idea of the following Source of the Constitution Nature of Nation’s State Statement of its objects Date of its relinquishment Que1.19. Explain the preamble to the Indian constitution. Answer 1. The ideals behind the Preamble to India’s Constitution were laid down by Jawaharlal Nehru’s objects Resolution, espoused by the Constituent Assembly on January 22, 1947. 2. Although not enforceable in court, the Preamble states the objects of the Constitution, and acts as an aid during the interpretation of Articles when language is set up nebulous. factors of Preamble 1. It’s indicated by the Preamble that the source of authority of the Constitution lies with the people of India. 2. Preamble declares India to be a autonomous, socialist, temporal and popular democracy. 3. The objects stated by the Preamble are to secure justice, liberty, equivalency to all citizens and promote fraternity to maintain concinnity and integrity of the nation. 4. The date is mentioned in the preamble when it was espoused i.e. November 26, 1949. crucial words in the Preamble 1. We, the people of India It indicates the ultimate sovereignty of the people of India. Sovereignty means the independent authority of the State, not being subject to the control of any other State or external power. 2. Autonomous The term means that India has its own independent authority and it isn’t a dominion of any other external power. In the country, the council has the power to make laws which are subject to certain limitations. 3. Socialist The term means the achievement of socialist ends through popular means. It holds faith in a mixed frugality where both private and public sectors co-occur side by side. It was added in the Preamble by 42nd Amendment, 1976. 4. temporal The term means that all the persuasions in India get equal respect, protection and support from the state. It was incorporated in the Preamble by 42nd indigenous Correction, 1976. 5. Popular The term implies that the Constitution of India has an established form of Constitution which gets its authority from the will of the people expressed in an election. 6. Republic The term indicates that the head of the state is tagged by the people. In India, the President of India is the tagged head of the state. Que1.20. What are the Fundamental Rights? List the abecedarian rights of the Indian Constitution. Answer 1. Abecedarian rights are the introductory mortal rights elevated in the Constitution of India which are guaranteed to all citizens. 2. They’re applied without demarcation on the base of race, religion, gender,etc. 3. Also, abecedarian rights are enforceable by the courts, subject to certain conditions. 4. These rights are called abecedarian rights because of two reasonsi. They’re elevated in the Constitution which guarantees them. ii. They’re enforceable by courts. In case of a violation, a person can approach a court of law. Abecedarian Rights of Indian Constitution There are six abecedarian rights of Indian Constitution which are mentioned belowi. Right to Equality ii. Right to Freedom iii. Right against Exploitation iv. Right to Freedom of Religionv. Cultural and Educational Rights vi. Right to indigenous Remedies

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