Que2.1. What do you understand by ‘ analysis of rates ’? What are purposes of rate of analysis?
Answer 1. The system of determination of rate per unit of a particular item of work considering the cost of amounts of accoutrements , the cost of labours, hire of tools and shops, overhead charges, water charges, contractors profitetc., is known as rate analysis or analysis of rate.
2. Rates of accoutrements are generally taken as the rates delivered at the point of work and include the first cost( cost at origin), cost of transport, road freight( if any), leviesetc.
3. still, further than 8 km, If the accoutrements are to be carried from a distantplace.additional cost of transport may be added.
4. A contractor’s profit is added on all particulars of the particular work which have been arranged by him.
Purposes of Rate Analysis The purposes of rate analysis are as follows
1. To determine the current rate per unit of an item of work at the position. 2. To examine the viability of rates quoted by contractors.
3. To ascertain the volume of accoutrements and labour strengths needed to complete the design.
4. To revise the schedule of rates due to increase in the cost of accoutrements and labour or due to changed situations.
Que2.2. Give the factors which affect the analysis of rates.
Answer Factors Affecting Rate Analysis entourages are the factors that affect the rate of a particular item of work
1. Specifications of workshop and accoutrements , quality of accoutrements , proportion of blend, system of constructional operationetc.
2. Amounts of accoutrements and their rates.
3. Number of different types of labour and their rates.
4. position of point of work and its distance from the sources of accoutrements and rates of transport.
5. Vacuity of water.
6. eclectic and overhead charges of contractor.
7. point conditions and the associations.
Que2.3. bandy in detail procedure to fix up rates per unit of an item.
Answer 1. The following information are needed to fix up the rate for unit of an item Out- turn or Task.
ii. Estimation of labour.
iii. Accoutrements for different particulars of work.
iv. Current rate of accoutrements .
Current rate of labour of different orders.
2. The analysis of rate is done for unit volume of an item of work.
3. Details of colorful accoutrements and labour are worked out and added together to get the total cost of accoutrements and labour.
4. This will also include eclectic and T and P cost. To this 1 1 2 of it is added for water charge( only in those particulars which bear water in any way). 10 contractor’s profit is also added.
5. The totality all these costs is known as rate of unit volume of an item. Analysis of Rates, Specification & Tenders.
Mathematically Let cost of accoutrements for unit item = x ii. Let cost of labourers, T and P and sundries = y iii. Cost of material and labour = ( x y) iv. Add 1 1 2 for water charge = ) 100 x y Total cost with contractor profit( = 10) = 10 ) 1 100 100 x y vi. Rate for unit of the item = 1.115( x y)
Que2.4. Explain the labour demand for different workshop according to National Building Code.
Answer Channel per28.30 cu m( 1000 cu ft)
1. Excavation in foundations, fosses,etc. in ordinary soil including disposal up to 30 m( 100) and lift of1.5 m( 5 ft) – 5 Beldars and 4 Mazdoors can do28.30 cu m( 1000 cu ft) per day.
2. Refilling shoveled earth in foundations, plinth,etc., including connection in 15 cm( 6 ”) layers – 3 Beldars, 2 Mazdoors and1/2 Bhishti can do28.30 cu m( 1000 cu ft) per day.
3. Disposal of fat earth within a lead of 30m( 100) – 1 Mazdoor can do cu m( 100 cu ft) per day. Cement Concrete Work per2.83 cu m( 100 cu ft) Laying cement concrete – 2 Beldars, 3 Mazdoors,3/4 Bhishti and1/4 Mason can do2.83 cu m( 100 cu ft) per day. RCC Work 1. Laying corroborated concrete – 3 Beldars, 3 Mazdoors,1.1/ 3 Bhishti and Mason can do2.83 cu m( 100 cu ft) per day.
2. Centering and shuttering for flat shells – 4 Beldars and 4 Carpenters II class) can do9.6 sq m( 96 sq ft) per day.
3. underpinning work forR.C.C. – 1 Blacksmith or fitter and 1 Beldar can bend and place in position 1 quintal( 2 cwt) of sword per day.
Stone Work per2.83 cu m( 100 cu ft) Random debris masonry with blue gravestone in foundations – 3 Masons, 3 Beldars, 2 Mazdoors and1/4 Bhishti can do2.83 cu m( 100 cu ft) per day. Brickwork per2.83 cu m( 100 cu ft) First class brickwork in 1 4 cement mortar in superstructure partition walls, junctions of roof, alcazar walls and string course – 1 F.
Wood Work 1. For the frames of doors and windows – 2 Carpenters and 1 Beldar can work0.18 cu m(6.40 cu ft) of wood fellow to 4 door frames7.5 cm × 10 cm of1.2 m ×2.1 m( 3 × 4 of 3 – 11 × 7) size per day.
2. For panelled, glazed,etc., shutters – 15 Carpenters and 4 Beldars can make and fix 4 shutters 40 mm thick of size2.00 in ×1.15 m( 12 1 thick of size of 6 – 9 × 3 – 9) per day. volume of wood per shutter –0.075 cu m, i.e.,2.66 cuft. Iron Work
1. Fixing 40 mm × 3 mm × 38 cm( 1 2 1 ×1/8 × 15) flat iron holdfasts – 1 Blacksmith( II class), Mason and 1 Beldar can fix 36 holdfasts per day.
2. Fixing 16 mm dia(5/8 dia.)M.S. rods – 1 Blacksmith( II class), 2 Carpenters( II class) and 3 Beldars can fix16.5 m( 54 r ft) per day. Flooring 4 cm 12 1) thick cement concrete flooring of 40 sq m( 400 sq- ft) bear – 5 Masons, 4 Beldars, 3 Mazdoors and 1 Bhishti per day for mixing, laying and finishing. Finishing
1. Publishing with any mortar 12 mm(1/2) thick – 3 Masons, 3 Mazdoors and 1 Bhishti can cataplasm 40 sq m( 400 sq ft) per day.
2. White washing or colour washing( 3 fleeces) – 1 White washer and 1 Mazdoor can do 60 sq m( 600 sq ft) per day.
3. Painting two fleeces similar as chocolate; red, slate,etc., on wood or sword – Painters and 2 Mazdoors can paint 10 sq m( 100 sq ft) per day.
Que2.5. Calculate the rate of M15 grade concrete used in crossbeams of a single fabled structure.
Answer 1. In the analysis of rates per cum, at first a volume of 10 cum( set volume) has been considered to avoid one place of numeric.
2. 1 cum of set volume of concrete corresponds to1.54 cum of dry volume of concrete.
3. thus for 10 cum of set volume = 15.4 cum of dry volume. 4. underpinning sword for RCC for shafts and crossbeams@ 1 of volume of concrete and for columns@ 2 of volume of concrete. 1 cum sword = 78.5 quintals. To note , 10 contractor’s If cement and sword are supplied by thedepartment.profit shouldn’t be added on the cost of these accoutrements but the cost of transport from godown to worksite may be added. , hiring and running If concrete mixer is employed for mixingconcrete.charges may be added@Rs. 100 per cum and labour may be reduced@ 2 beldars per 10 cum.
iii. Rate of bending, twiddling and binding with sword cables may be taken as Rs. 150 per quintal.
iv. Rate of centering and shuttering may be taken asRs. 200 per cum of RCC work.
v. For each fresh storey the strength of mazdoors may be increased 6 nos per 10 cum.
All India standard schedule of rates provides an increase of rate by 1 per bottom per cum for lifting the accoutrements assuming each bottom to be an normal of 3m.